Fiona Davidson

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For many RNA viruses, relatively recent times of origin of extant viruses are implied by the high rate of substitution observed in longitudinal studies. However, extrapolation of short-term rates of substitution can give misleading estimates of times of divergence. We show here that the common ancestor of different types of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is older(More)
BACKGROUND A newly discovered DNA virus, transfusion-transmitted virus (TTV), has been implicated as a cause of post-transfusion hepatitis. We investigated the frequency of TTV viraemia in UK blood donors, and the extent to which TTV contaminates blood products such as factor VIII and IX clotting factors. We also investigated the possible aetiological role(More)
The long-term evolution of the hepatitis C virus hypervariable region (HVR) and flanking regions of the E1 and E2 envelope proteins have been studied in a cohort of women infected from a common source of anti-D immunoglobulin. Whereas virus sequences in the infectious source were relatively homogeneous, distinct HVR variants were observed in each anti-D(More)
Previous surveys of the prevalences of genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in different populations have often used genotyping assays based upon analysis of amplified sequences from the 5' noncoding region (5'NCR), such as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or hybridization with type-specific probes (e.g., InnoLipa). Although highly conserved,(More)
Variation in the 5' non-coding region (5'NCR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was investigated in detail by comparing 314 5'NCR sequences of viruses of genotypes 1 to 6. Evidence was obtained for the existence of associations between particular 5'NCR sequence motifs and virus types and subtypes. No recombination was observed between the 5'NCR and coding regions(More)
The prevalence, incidence, clinical features, and natural history of hepatitis G virus (HGV) or GB virus C (GBV-C) were investigated in a non-remunerated blood donor population to determine its clinical significance and its impact on blood safety. Of 1020 regular blood donors, 23 (2.25%) were positive for plasma HGV/GBV-C RNA. Alanine aminotransferase(More)
A method is described for identifying different genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) by restriction endonuclease cleavage of sequences amplified by PCR from the 5' non-coding region. Using the enzymes HaeIII-RsaI and HinfI-MvaI, followed by cleavage with BstU1 or ScrFI, it was possible to identify and distinguish HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4, 5(More)
TT virus (TTV) is widely distributed, with high frequencies of viremia in South America, Central Africa, and Papua New Guinea. The incidence and timing of infection in children born in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo was investigated. TTV viremia was detected in 61 (58%) of 105 women attending an antenatal clinic and in 36 (54%) of 68(More)
The accuracy of different methods for the quantitation of hepatitis C virus in plasma was measured with samples from individuals infected with different genotypes and by using RNA transcripts of predetermined concentrations. Highly reproducible results were observed upon repeat testing of samples by both the original version of the Chiron branched-DNA(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis G virus (HGV or GBV-C) is a newly discovered human flavivirus distantly related to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Little information is available on its natural history or routes of transmission, although it can be transmitted parenterally. We investigated the prevalence of persistent infection of HGV and HCV in patients exposed to(More)