Fiona Anne Stewart

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Radiotherapy is used to treat approximately 50% of all cancer patients, with varying success. The dose of ionizing radiation that can be given to the tumour is determined by the sensitivity of the surrounding normal tissues. Strategies to improve radiotherapy therefore aim to increase the effect on the tumour or to decrease the effects on normal tissues.(More)
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is increasingly being recognized as an attractive, alternative treatment modality for superficial cancer. Treatment consists of two relatively simple procedures: the administration of a photosensitive drug and illumination of the tumor to activate the drug. Efficacy is high for small superficial tumors and, except for temporary(More)
Savanna chimpanzees are known to re-use areas of the landscape for sleep, and patterns of chimpanzee sleeping site re-use are proposed as a referential model for early hominin archaeological site formation. We recorded the prevalence of deformed but healed branches and remnants of dead branches found around fresh nests at the savanna site of Issa in Ugalla,(More)
This report provides a review of early and late effects of radiation in normal tissues and organs with respect to radiation protection. It was instigated following a recommendation in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007), and it provides updated estimates of 'practical' threshold doses for tissue injury defined at the level of 1% incidence. Estimates are given for(More)
Plasmodium vivax is the leading cause of human malaria in Asia and Latin America but is absent from most of central Africa due to the near fixation of a mutation that inhibits the expression of its receptor, the Duffy antigen, on human erythrocytes. The emergence of this protective allele is not understood because P. vivax is believed to have originated in(More)
Simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz) has a significant negative impact on the health, reproduction, and life span of chimpanzees, yet the prevalence and distribution of this virus in wild-living populations are still only poorly understood. Here, we show that savanna chimpanzees, who live in ecologically marginal habitats at 10- to 50-fold(More)
Epidemiological studies have shown a clear association between therapeutic doses of thoracic irradiation and increased risk of cardiovascular disease in long-term cancer survivors. Survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma and childhood cancers, for example, show 2- to >7-fold increases in risk of cardiac death after total tumour doses of 30-40 Gy, given in 2-Gy(More)
Five patients with a pleural malignancy (four malignant mesotheliomas and one localized low grade carcinoid) were treated with maximal surgical resection of the tumour followed by intraoperative adjuvant photodynamic therapy (PDT). The additional photodynamic treatment was performed with light of 652 nm from a high power diode laser, and meta-tetrahydroxy(More)
PURPOSE Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and Notch signaling pathways are important regulators of vascular homeostasis and vessel remodeling; mutations in these pathways can lead to vascular disorders. Similar vascular phenotypes develop in the normal tissues of cancer patients as a long-term effect of radiotherapy. Irradiation most severely(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE Although the use of video-assisted thoracoscopy has improved the diagnostic accuracy in patients presenting with pleural diseases, not all biopsies performed are conclusive and staging of the disease is not always optimal. Fluorescence diagnosis (FD) with 5-aminolaevulinic acid (5-ALA) has been used in the diagnostic workup for various(More)