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National health systems need strengthening if they are to meet the growing challenge of chronic diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. By application of an accepted health-systems framework to the evidence, we report that the factors that limit countries' capacity to implement proven strategies for chronic diseases relate to the way in which(More)
Factors operating in fetal life or during childhood may be important in determining fibrinogen and factor VII concentrations in adult life, and particularly in explaining social gradients in cardiovascular disease risk. In 1994, the authors measured fibrinogen and factor VIIc levels in 641 children aged 10-11 years (61% response rate) from schools in five(More)
The last three years have seen considerable changes in the process of public health medicine (PHM) training in the UK. Reforms following the Calman report have ensured the development of training programmes with defined objectives, assessment and duration. 1,2 These changes have been broadly welcomed, but raise challenges for academic training where there(More)
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