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Lactobacillus-based probiotics (LBP) are used as competitive exclusion to control pathogenic enterobacterial infections and improve the weight gain in broiler chickens. This study assessed the(More)
Newcastle disease (ND) is caused by the avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) or Newcastle disease virus (NDV) that comprises a diverse group of viruses with a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA(More)
Tracheal mucosa is the primary site of replication of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), which leads to both morphologic and immune modulatory changes in this organ. To increase the(More)
A competitive liquid-phase-blocking concanavalin A enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LPB-ConA-ELISA) was developed in the current study. The assay used ConA as a capture reagent, and the sera of(More)
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