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The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as(More)
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of ancient retroviral infections of the host germline transmitted vertically from generation to generation. It is hypothesized that some ERVs are used by the host as restriction factors to block the infection of pathogenic retroviruses. Indeed, some ERVs efficiently interfere with the replication of related(More)
Highly adaptable and versatile populations of domestic sheep, the result of millennia of intense husbandry, are found in almost every corner of the world. Here we describe a genetic survey of sheep from the western fringe of its European distribution. We studied the mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 161 individuals belonging to 7 Portuguese(More)
The polymorphic merozoite surface protein-2 (MSP-2) of Plasmodium falciparum is a major malaria-vaccine candidate. In the present study, PCR and hybridization with allelic-specific probes were used to type the Msp-2 gene from isolates from hypo-endemic Brazil (N = 113), meso-endemic Vietnam (N = 208) and holo-endemic Tanzania (N = 67). The typing methods(More)
One of the grand challenges of modern biology is to develop accurate and reliable technologies for a rapid screening of DNA sequence variation. This topic of research is of prime importance for the detection and identification of species in numerous fields of investigation, such as taxonomy, epidemiology, forensics, archaeology or ecology. Molecular(More)
To our knowledge, the large spectrum of sleep motor activities (SMA) present in the head and neck region has not yet been systematically estimated in normal and sleep bruxism (SB) subjects. We hypothesized that in the absence of audio-video signal recordings, normal and SB subjects would present a high level of SMA that might confound the scoring(More)
Two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols showed low sensitivity (36% and 53% for TB AMPLICOR and MPB64 nested PCR, respectively), when compared with classic microbiological methods (73% and 54% for Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture, respectively), in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis in 91 patients in southeastern Brazil. Only three(More)
The 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) included in the AmpFLSTR Yfiler PCR Amplification Kit (AB Applied Biosystems) (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and GATA H4) were typed in two Berber communities, a small village (Takrouna) and a town (Sejenane), from(More)
Valuable insights into the history of human populations have been obtained by studying the genetic composition of their domesticated species. Here we address some of the long-standing questions about the origin and subsequent movements of goat pastoralism in Northern Africa. We present the first study combining results from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y(More)
A previously described canine-specific 9-STR multiplex, now including two markers for sex determination, was tested for the genotyping of 23 wolves from Northern and Central Portugal. The samples were collected at necropsies and presented varying states of preservation. Complete profiles were obtained in 74% of the samples, partial profiles in 22% and one(More)