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We examined induction of preference and performance on novel host plants for two laboratory populations of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae, with one population adapted to bean and the other population adapted to tomato. We bred four isofemale lines of the bean population only and used them in all the assays. The bean population had a 30%(More)
The most enigmatic sexual manipulation by Wolbachia endosymbionts is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI): infected males are reproductively incompatible with uninfected females. In this paper, we extend the theory on population dynamics and evolution of CI, with emphasis on haplodiploid species. First, we focus on the problem of the threshold to invasion of(More)
The most common post-zygotic isolation mechanism between populations of the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae is 'hybrid breakdown', i.e. when individuals from two different populations are crossed, F1 hybrid females are produced, but F2 recombinant male offspring suffer increased mortality. Two-spotted spider mites collected from two populations, one(More)
Wolbachia bacteria are transmitted from mother to offspring via the cytoplasm of the egg. When mated to males infected with Wolbachia bacteria, uninfected females produce unviable offspring, a phenomenon called cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). Current theory predicts that 'sterilization' of uninfected females by infected males confers a fitness advantage(More)
Wolbachia pipientis is a bacterium that induces cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), the phenomenon in which infected males are reproductively incompatible with uninfected females. CI spreads in a population of hosts because it reduces the fitness of uninfected females relative to infected females. CI encompasses two steps: modification (mod) of sperm of(More)
Nucleocytoplasmic genetic conflicts arise as a result of asymmetric transmission of cytoplasmic and nuclear genes. Spread of a cytoplasmic element promoting female-biased sex ratios creates selection on nuclear genes for mechanisms that decrease the bias. Here we investigate the conflict over sex ratio between the cytoplasmic bacterium Wolbachia and the(More)
Wolbachia are cytoplasmically transmitted bacteria that infect several species of mites. In the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch this symbiont can induce reproductive incompatibility. Wolbachia-induced reproductive incompatibility is observed in crosses between Wolbachia-infected (W) males and uninfected (U) females. This incompatibility is(More)
Wolbachia bacteria manipulate host reproduction by inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) and sex ratio distortion. Wolbachia are transmitted from mother to offspring through the cytoplasm of the egg. Therefore, reproduction of Wolbachia is tightly coupled to reproduction of its host. Mathematical analysis predicts that in the course of evolution, traits(More)
Ever since Darwin, understanding evolutionary processes and patterns have been major scientific quests. In the Origin of Species, Darwin explained both adaptation and diversity, and most of his arguments were based on indirect evidence, including comparative approaches. These findings led Darwin to defend that evolution in nature is extremely slow and(More)
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