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Spacelab Life Sciences-1 and -2 provided skeletal muscles from rats dissected in flight for the first time and 2 h to 14 days postflight. The muscles permitted the distinguishing of primary adaptations to microgravity from secondary reloading-induced alterations. In microgravity, rats adopted bipedal forelimb locomotion with the hindlimbs relegated to(More)
Soleus muscle atrophy was induced by hindlimb unloading of male Sprague-Dawley rats (305 +/- 15 g) for 4, 7, and 10-14 days. Controls (291 +/- 14 g) were housed in vivarium cages. Soleus electromyogram (EMG) activity was recorded before and during tail suspension. Unloading caused progressive reduction in the muscle-to-body weight ratio. After 14 days, type(More)
Voice conversion – the methodology of automatically converting one's utterances to sound as if spoken by another speaker – presents a threat for applications relying on speaker verification. We study vulnerability of text-independent speaker verification systems against voice conversion attacks using telephone speech. We implemented a voice conversion(More)
We propose a person authentication system using eye movement signals. In security scenarios, eye-tracking has earlier been used for gaze-based password entry. A few authors have also used physical features of eye movement signals for authentication in a <i>task-dependent scenario</i> with matched training and test samples. We propose and implement a(More)
Prolonged exposure of humans to hypogravity causes weakening of their skeletal muscles. This problem was studied in rats exposed to hypogravity for 7 days aboard Spacelab 3. Hindlimb muscles were harvested 12-16 hours postflight for histochemical, biochemical, and ultrastructural analyses. The majority of the soleus and extensor digitorum longus fibers(More)
State-of-the-art speaker verification systems consists of a number of complementary subsystems whose outputs are fused, to arrive at more accurate and reliable verification decision. In speaker verification , fusion is typically implemented as a linear combination of the subsystem scores. Parameters of the linear model are commonly estimated using the(More)
We hypothesized that hindlimb suspension unloading of 8-day-old neonatal rats would disrupt the normal development of muscle fiber types and the motor innervation of the antigravity (weightbearing) soleus muscles but not extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Five rats were suspended 4.5 h and returned 1.5 h to the dam for nursing on a 24 h cycle for 9(More)
The production of hard di-jet events in photoproduction at HERA is dominated by resolved photon processes in which a parton in the photon with momentum fraction Ü ­ is scattered from a parton in the proton. These processes are sensitive to the quark and gluon content of the photon. The differential di-jet cross-section ÐÓÓ´Ü ­ µ is presented here, measured(More)