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It was previously believed that larger metal nanoparticles behave as tiny mirrors that are pushed by the light beam radiative force along the direction of beam propagation, without a chance to be confined. However, several groups have recently reported successful optical trapping of gold and silver particles as large as 250 nm. We offer a possible(More)
The scanning electron microscope has proven itself efficient for determining dopant concentrations in semiconductors. Contrast between differently doped areas is observable in the secondary electron emission. Multiple studies have revealed quantitative relations between the image contrast and dopant concentration. However, intimate examination shows a low(More)
The coloration of butterflies that exhibit human visible iridescence from violet to green has been elucidated. Highly tilted multilayers of cuticle on the ridges, which were found in the scales of male S. charonda and E. mulciber butterflies, produce a limited-view, selective wavelength iridescence (ultraviolet (UV)~green) as a result of multiple(More)
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