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Whereas the non-heterocystous cyanobacteria Trichodesmium spp. are the dominant N2-fixing organisms in the tropical oceans, heterocystous species dominate N2 fixation in freshwater lakes and brackish environments such as the Baltic Sea. So far no satisfactory explanation for the absence of heterocystous cyanobacteria in the pelagic of the tropical oceans(More)
The physical mechanism that drives bioirrigation is strongly dependent on the permeability of the sediment. We advance two mechanisms, each described by a corresponding microenvironment model. In muds, burrow water cannot penetrate the sediment, so bioirrigation is intrinsically driven by diffusional transfer across the burrow wall. This ''diffusive'' mode(More)
The idea that entropy production puts a constraint on ecosystem functioning is quite popular in ecological thermodynamics. Yet, until now, such claims have received little quantitative verification. Here, we examine three 'entropy production' hypotheses that have been forwarded in the past. The first states that increased entropy production serves as a(More)
Recently, a novel mode of sulphur oxidation was described in marine sediments, in which sulphide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers was electrically coupled to oxygen reduction at the sediment surface. Subsequent experimental evidence identified that long filamentous bacteria belonging to the family Desulfobulbaceae likely mediated the electron transport(More)
We present, by means of a simple example, a comprehensive step-by-step procedure to consistently derive a pH model of aquatic systems. As pH modelling is inherently complex, we make every step of the model generation process explicit, thus ensuring conceptual, mathematical, and chemical correctness. Summed quantities, such as total inorganic carbon and(More)
(2015) Cold-water coral reefs and adjacent sponge grounds: hotspots of benthic respiration and organic carbon cycling in the deep sea. Cold-water coral reefs and adjacent sponge grounds are distributed widely in the deep ocean, where only a small fraction of the surface productivity reaches the seafloor as detritus. It remains elusive how these hotspots of(More)
Insight in the biogeochemistry and ecology of sandy sediments crucially depends on a quantitative description of pore water flow and the associated transport of various solutes and particles. We show that widely different problems can be modelled by the same flow and tracer equations. The principal difference between model applications concerns the geometry(More)
Coastal marine systems are currently subject to a variety of anthropogenic and climate-change-induced pressures. An important challenge is to predict how marine sediment communities and benthic biogeochemical cycling will be affected by these ongoing changes. To this end, it is of paramount importance to first better understand the natural variability in(More)
The Greenland Ice Sheet releases large amounts of freshwater, which strongly influences the physical and chemical properties of the adjacent fjord systems and continental shelves. Glacial meltwater input is predicted to strongly increase in the future, but the impact of meltwater on the carbonate dynamics of these productive coastal systems remains largely(More)