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The chemokine IL-8 is known to be synthesized by glial cells in the brain. It has traditionally been shown to have an important role in neuroinflammation but recent evidence indicates that it may also be involved in rapid signaling in neurons. We investigated how IL-8 participates in rapid neuronal signaling by using a combination of whole-cell recording(More)
Some characteristics of ephaptic transmission of action potentials were investigated with squid giant axons. For these studies two isolated axons were placed side by side or, on occasion, a single long axon was looped to form an "ephapse" between the axon trunk and one of its main branches. Extracellular potentials measured adjacent to axons surrounded by a(More)
Clear evidence of sleep in invertebrates is still meager. Defined as a distinct state of reduced activity, arousability, attention, and initiative, it is well established in mammals, birds, reptiles, and teleosts. It is commonly defined by additional electroencephalographic criteria that are only well established in mammals and to some extent in birds.(More)
Cable theory and active equivalent circuits have been used to simulate the propagation of action potentials along a single nerve or muscle fiber by representing the cell as a unidimensional cable composed of isopotential segments. We extended this method to a two-dimensional sheet of cells which in many ways represents the atrium. Our method consisted of(More)
Studies of the interaction of anaesthetics with various preparations, from whole animals to organic solvents, have been continuing since Overton and Meyer found a correlation between anaesthetic potency and solubility in olive oil. Although the physiological basis of anaesthesia is far from clear, one popular hypothesis is that anaesthetics act primarily by(More)
Previous results show that when unrestrained crayfish sleep, the electrical activity of the brain changes from multiple spikes (frequencies above 300 Hz) on a flat baseline to continuous slow waves at a frequency of 15-20 Hz. To study the temporal organization of such activity, we developed a tethered crayfish preparation that allows us to place electrodes(More)
This is the first in a series of four papers in which we present the numerical simulation of the application of the voltage clamp technique to excitable cells. In this paper we describe the application of the Crank-Nicolson (1947) method for the solution of the parabolic partial differential equations that describe a cylindrical cell in which the ionic(More)
Described are studies of propagation of action potentials through inhomogenous axon regions through experiments performed on squid giant axons and by computer simulations. The initial speed of propagation of the action potential is dependent upon the stimulus waveform. For a rectangular pulse of current, the action potential travel initally at a high speed(More)
The transverse tubular system (TTS) of skeletal muscle fibers represents the morphological basis for the inward spread of conduction of the electrical signal that triggers muscle contraction. A historical account of the main steps contributing to the elucidation of the structure and function of the TSS has been presented by Huxley (1971). While the(More)