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Ghrelin levels increase before and decrease after meals, potentially playing a role in meal initiation and satiety in an inverse pattern to that of insulin. The role of ghrelin in childhood obesity, a state associated with hyperinsulinism and insulin resistance, is not fully understood. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to investigate the(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to investigate 1) whether adiponectin is associated with insulin sensitivity independent of visceral adipose tissue in African-American and Caucasian youth and 2) whether adiponectin is associated with racial differences in insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Total body fat was measured by dual-energy(More)
OBJECTIVE Adiponectin is an adipose tissue protein that enhances insulin sensitivity and has antiatherogenic properties. The present study investigated the relationship of adiponectin levels in adolescents to 1) obesity and body fat distribution and 2) insulin sensitivity and the components of syndrome X. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty-three(More)
The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and secretion in youth. Forty-five obese adolescent boys were(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome using different pediatric definitions reported in the literature and its relationship to abdominal adipose tissue (AT), in vivo insulin resistance, and inflammatory biomarkers in children and adolescents, as well as the utility of fasting insulin and adiponectin as predictors of the metabolic(More)
OBJECTIVE Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are considered pre-diabetes states. There are limited data in pediatrics in regard to their pathophysiology. We investigated differences in insulin sensitivity and secretion among youth with IFG, IGT, and coexistent IFG/IGT compared with those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT)(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate clinically useful measures of beta-cell function derived from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) or mixed-meal (ie, Boost) tolerance test to assess insulin secretion in comparison with the gold standard, the hyperglycemic clamp (Hyper-C) test. STUDY DESIGN We hypothesized that OGTT/Boost-derived measures are useful estimates of(More)
The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children is increasing with the increasing prevalence of obesity, particularly in African-American children. We hypothesized that African-American obese adolescents are more insulin resistant than their white peers, but have lower insulin secretion, thus increasing their risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The(More)
OBJECTIVE Obesity in adolescence has been associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease in adulthood. This study evaluated subclinical atherosclerosis in obese youth and the underlying risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Ninety obese adolescents (37 normal glucose tolerant, 27 prediabetes, and 26 type 2 diabetes) underwent evaluation of(More)
OBJECTIVES We examined how well waist circumference (WC) reflects total and abdominal fat and whether WC predicts insulin resistance independent of body mass index (BMI) percentile in youths. STUDY DESIGN Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal adiposity by computed tomography. Insulin sensitivity was measured by(More)