Fernando Valladares

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The comparative phenotypic plasticity of 16 species of tropical rainforest shrubs (genus Psychotria, Rubiaceae) was investigated by growing plants in three light environments on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama). The three light environments gave daily photon flux densities (PPFD) similar to the natural light gradient from shaded forest understory to(More)
Climate change is altering the availability of resources and the conditions that are crucial to plant performance. One way plants will respond to these changes is through environmentally induced shifts in phenotype (phenotypic plasticity). Understanding plastic responses is crucial for predicting and managing the effects of climate change on native species(More)
Phenotypic plasticity is considered the major means by which plants cope with environmental heterogeneity. Although ubiquitous in nature, actual phenotypic plasticity is far from being maximal. This has been explained by the existence of internal limits to its expression. However, phenotypic plasticity takes place within an ecological context and plants are(More)
 We examined in the field the photosynthetic utilization of fluctuating light by six neotropical rainforest shrubs of the family Rubiaceae. They were growing in three different light environments: forest understory, small gaps, and clearings. Gas exchange techniques were used to analyse photosynthetic induction response, induction maintenance during(More)
We explore the issues relevant to those types of ecosystems containing new combinations of species that arise through human action, environmental change, and the impacts of the deliberate and inadvertent introduction of species from other regions. Novel ecosystems (also termed ‘emerging ecosystems’) result when species occur in combinations and relative(More)
The responses of Quercus robur (oak) and Fagus sylvatica (beech) seedlings to four different light environments (full, 50%, 40% and 15% sunlight) and to a rapid increase in irradiance were explored during the summer, after 2 years of growth in a forest nursery at Nancy (France). Significant differences between the two species were found for most variables.(More)
Leaf and crown characteristics were examined for 24 tree and herbaceous species of contrasting architectures from the understory of a lowland rainforest. Light-capture efficiency was estimated for the crowns of the different species with a three-dimensional geometric modeling program. Causal relationships among traits affecting light absorption at two(More)
Past and present pressures on forest resources have led to a drastic decrease in the surface area of unmanaged forests in Europe. Changes in forest structure, composition, and dynamics inevitably lead to changes in the biodiversity of forest-dwelling species. The possible biodiversity gains and losses due to forest management (i.e., anthropogenic pressures(More)
The ecophysiological mechanisms underlying plant-plant interactions and forest regeneration processes in Mediterranean ecosystems are poorly understood, and the experimental evidence for the role of light availability in these processes is particularly scant. We analyzed the effects of high and low irradiances on 31 ecological, morphological and(More)
Plant populations of widely distributed species experience a broad range of environmental conditions that can be faced by phenotypic plasticity or ecotypic differentiation and local adaptation. The strategy chosen will determine a population's ability to respond to climate change. To explore this, we grew Quercus ilex (L.) seedlings from acorns collected at(More)