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Plasma membrane Na+/Ca2+-exchangers play a predominant role in Ca2+ extrusion in brain. Neurons express several different Na+/Ca2+-exchangers belonging to both the K+-independent NCX family and the K+-dependent NCKX family. The unique contributions of each of these proteins to neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis and/or physiology remain largely unexplored. To address(More)
Previous work has established that stellate cells of the medial entorhinal cortex produce prominent intrinsic subthreshold oscillations in the voltage response concentrated within the theta range (3-7 Hz). It has been speculated that these oscillations play an important role in vivo in establishing network behavior both in the entorhinal cortex and(More)
Gain modulation is an important feature of neural activity. Previous work has focused on the ability of background synaptic noise to modulate the slope (i.e., gain) of the frequency-current (f-I) relationship in neurons. To date, demonstrations of gain control that are independent of synaptic noise have been limited. We investigated the effects of(More)
Pyramidal cells of the apteronotid ELL have been shown to display a characteristic mechanism of burst discharge, which has been shown to play an important role in sensory coding. This form of bursting depends on a reciprocal dendro-somatic interaction, in which discharge of a somatic spike causes a dendritic spike, which in turn contributes a dendro-somatic(More)
The modification of first-spike latencies by low-threshold and inactivating K+ currents (IA) have important implications in neuronal coding and synaptic integration. To date, cells in which first-spike latency characteristics have been analyzed have shown that increased hyperpolarization results in longer first-spike latencies, producing a monotonic(More)
Modulating the gain of the input-output function of neurons is critical for processing of stimuli and network dynamics. Previous gain control mechanisms have suggested that voltage fluctuations play a key role in determining neuronal gain in vivo. Here we show that, under increased membrane conductance, voltage fluctuations restore Na(+) current and reduce(More)
Kv3.3 K+ channels are believed to incorporate an NH2-terminal domain to produce an intermediate rate of inactivation relative to the fast inactivating K+ channels Kv3.4 and Kv1.4. The rate of Kv3.3 inactivation has, however, been difficult to establish given problems in obtaining consistent rates of inactivation in expression systems. This study(More)
Potassium channels are one of the fundamental requirements for the generation of action potentials in the nervous system, and their characteristics shape the output of neurons in response to synaptic input. We review here the distribution and function of a high-threshold potassium channel (Kv3.3) in the electrosensory lateral line lobe of the weakly(More)
How stable synchrony in neuronal networks is sustained in the presence of conduction delays is an open question. The Dynamic Clamp was used to measure phase resetting curves (PRCs) for entorhinal cortical cells, and then to construct networks of two such neurons. PRCs were in general Type I (all advances or all delays) or weakly type II with a small region(More)
The presence of voltage fluctuations arising from synaptic activity is a critical component in models of gain control, neuronal output gating, and spike rate coding. The degree to which individual neuronal input-output functions are modulated by voltage fluctuations, however, is not well established across different cortical areas. Additionally, the extent(More)