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The phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2))-sensitive inward rectifier channel Kir2.1 was expressed in Drosophila photoreceptors and used to monitor in vivo PIP(2) levels. Since the wild-type (WT) Kir2.1 channel appeared to be saturated by the prevailing PIP(2) concentration, we made a single amino acid substitution (R228Q), which reduced the(More)
Two main second messenger systems depending on IP3 and cAMP have been related to olfaction in vertebrates as well as invertebrates. In Drosophila melanogaster, the availability of mutations affecting one or the other pathway (rdgB and norpA or rut and dnc, respectively) allowed showing of abnormal olfactory behavior phenotypes associated with olfactory(More)
Sensory systems, including the olfactory system, are able to adapt to changing environmental conditions. In nature, changes in temperature modify the volatility and concentration of odorants in the air. If the olfactory system does not adapt to these changes, it could relay wrong information about the distance to or direction of odor sources. Recent(More)
Electromyography (EMG) exercise evaluation is commonly used to measure the intensity of muscle contraction. Although researchers assume that biomechanically comparable resistance exercises with similar high EMG levels will produce similar strength gains over the long term, no studies have actually corroborated this hypothesis. This study evaluated EMG(More)
The Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) route is one of the two main transduction cascades that mediate olfactory reception in Drosophila melanogaster. The activity of IP3 kinase1 reduces the levels of this substrate by phosphorylation into inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakiphosphate (IP4). We show here that the gene is expressed in olfactory sensory organs as well as(More)