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Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a group of neurodegenerative disorders with involvement of upper and/or lower motor neurons, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), progressive bulbar palsy, and primary lateral sclerosis. Recently, we have mapped a new locus for an atypical form of ALS/MND (atypical amyotrophic lateral(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from cerebral catecholamine deficiency. Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency has been reported in fewer than 40 patients worldwide. To recapitulate all available evidence on clinical phenotypes and rational diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for this devastating, but treatable,(More)
BACKGROUND Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by severe mental retardation, speech disorder, stereotyped jerky movements, and a peculiar behavioral profile, with a happy disposition and outbursts of laughter. Most patients with AS present with epilepsy and suggestive electroencephalographic patterns, which may be used as(More)
Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause serious developmental regression, hypotonia and cerebral atrophy in infants. We report a 6-month-old infant, with insidious developmental regression and brain atrophy showed by CT scan, secondarily to vitamin B12 deficiency. His mother was a strict vegetarian and the patient was exclusively breastfed. The clinical symptoms(More)
PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of the EEG in Angelman syndrome (AS), to verify the age at onset of suggestive EEGs and to study EEG patterns, analyzing variations and comparing our findings with nomenclature previously used. METHODS Seventy EEG and 15 V-EEGs of 26 patients were analyzed. Suggestive EEG patterns of AS were classified(More)
We present clinical data from 14 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients who have been admitted to our hospital between January 1980 and May 1992, whose age of onset ranged from 2-15 years. Our patients could be classified as having a clinically definite form of the disease. Initial symptoms varied from minor, such as motor or sensory impairment, bladder(More)
We describe three cases of the rare syndrome of leukoencephalopathy, brain calcifications, and cysts. Conventional MRI, proton spectroscopy, and diffusion-weighted imaging yielded additional information on the disease. Imaging findings favor increased water content rather than a demyelinating process in the pathophysiology of this disease. Clinical features(More)
We report an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder in 25 white members from a large inbred Brazilian family, 22 of whom were evaluated clinically. This condition is characterized by (1) subnormal vision secondary to apparently nonprogressive congenital optic atrophy; (2) onset of progressive spastic paraplegia in infancy; (3) onset of progressive(More)
More than 140 years after the first description of Friedreich ataxia, autosomal recessive ataxias have become one of the more complex fields in neurogenetics. Currently this group of diseases contains more than 20 clinical entities and an even larger number of associated genes. Some disorders are very rare, restricted to isolated populations, and others are(More)