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In the adult hippocampus and olfactory bulb, neural progenitor cells generate neurons that functionally integrate into the existing circuits. To understand how neuronal differentiation occurs in the adult hippocampus, we labeled dividing progenitor cells with a retrovirus expressing green fluorescent protein and studied the morphological and functional(More)
It is widely accepted that interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), a cytokine produced not only by immune cells but also by glial cells and certain neurons influences brain functions during infectious and inflammatory processes. It is still unclear, however, whether IL-1 production is triggered under nonpathological conditions during activation of a discrete neuronal(More)
Prenatal exposure to inflammatory stimuli is known to influence adult brain function. In addition, adult hippocampal neurogenesis is impaired by a local pro-inflammatory microenvironment. On this basis, we hypothesized that a pro-inflammatory insult during gestation would have negative effects on adult neurogenesis in the offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats(More)
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with uncertain aetiology and ill-defined pathophysiology. Activated microglial cells in the substantia nigra (SN) are found in all animal models of Parkinson's disease and patients with the illness. Microglia may, however, have detrimental and protective functions in this disease. In this study, we tested(More)
Adult neural stem cells (NSC) proliferate and differentiate depending on the composition of the cellular and molecular niche in which they are immersed. Until recently, microglial cells have been ignored as part of the neurogenic niche. We studied the dynamics of NSC proliferation and differentiation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and(More)
Microglial activation has been associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Among the many components of this reaction, cytokines have been proposed as candidates to mediate neurodegenerative or neuroprotective effects. We investigated the interleukin-1 system and tumour necrosis factor-alpha mRNA and protein levels at different time(More)
The interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokine family (IL-1alpha, IL-beta, and the IL-1 receptor antagonist) is involved in immune and inflammatory responses both in the brain and in the periphery. Recently, it has also been shown to influence behavior and memory consolidation. However, within the experimental systems studied, it has remained unclear whether the role of(More)
Information storage in the brain is a temporally graded process involving different memory types or phases. It has been assumed for over a century that one or more short-term memory (STM) processes are involved in processing new information while long-term memory (LTM) is being formed. Because brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF) modulates both short-term(More)
It is known that proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) during disease conditions and affect several brain functions including memory and learning. In contrast to these effects observed during pathological conditions, here we describe a physiological function of IL-6 in the "healthy" brain in(More)
Inflammation, and in particular microglia activation, is regarded as a constant component of brain pathology in Parkinson's disease (PD). Microglial activation has been found in the substantia nigra (SN), one of the main brain regions affected in PD, for many years after the initiation of the disease. Although many studies point towards a deleterious role(More)