Fernando Castro

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Using data for 25,780 species categorized on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, we present an assessment of the status of the world's vertebrates. One-fifth of species are classified as Threatened, and we show that this figure is increasing: On average, 52 species of mammals, birds, and amphibians move one category closer to(More)
PURPOSE The value of MRI and ultrasound in quantifying hepatic steatosis is assessed and the results compared with those obtained by liver biopsies. METHODS A total of 38 patients undergoing hepatic biopsy for a variety of liver diseases were recruited for this study. Hepatic fat morphology and severity were assessed visually in each biopsy specimen.(More)
We evaluated the contribution of an Alu insertion in BRCA2 exon 3 (c.156_157insAlu) to inherited predisposition to breast/ovarian cancer in 208 families originated mostly from northern/central Portugal. We identified the c.156_157insAlu BRCA2 mutation in 14 families and showed that it accounts for more that one-fourth of deleterious BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in(More)
The physiological role of anosmin-1, defective in the X chromosome-linked form of Kallmann syndrome, is not yet known. Here, we show that anti-anosmin-1 antibodies block the formation of the collateral branches of rat olfactory bulb output neurons (mitral and tufted cells) in organotypic cultures. Moreover, anosmin-1 greatly enhances axonal branching of(More)
During the development of the central nervous system (CNS), oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) are generated in specific sites within the neural tube and then migrate to colonize the entire CNS, where they differentiate into myelin-forming oligodendrocytes. Demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) are characterized by the death of these cells.(More)
We studied the levels of twenty two free amino acids in the striatum and olfactory bulb of mice treated during nine weeks with daily intraperitoneal injections of manganese chloride at a concentration of 5.0 mg Mn+2/kg body weight. In the olfactory bulb the contents of alanine, alpha-amino-n-butyrate, arginine, asparagine, aspartate, citrulline, GABA,(More)
Phase Change Memory (PCM) is currently postulated as the best alternative for replacing Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) as the technology used for implementing main memories, thanks to its significant advantages such as good scalability and low leakage. However, PCM also presents some drawbacks compared to DRAM, like its lower endurance. This work(More)
Buffering more in-flight instructions in an out-of-order microprocessor is a straightforward and effective method to help tolerate the long latencies generally associated with off-chip memory accesses. One of the main challenges of buffering a large number of instructions, however, is the implementation of a scalable and efficient mechanism to detect memory(More)
Although PVC-containing wastes are an important potential source of energy they are frequently disposed in landfill. In thermal treatment processes such as pyrolysis and gasification, the presence of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), a compound with 56.7% of chlorine, may cause problems concerned with environmental protection, as consequence of the formation of(More)