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Arousal and anxiety are behavioral responses that involve complex neurocircuitries and multiple neurochemical components. Here, we report that a neuropeptide, neuropeptide S (NPS), potently modulates wakefulness and could also regulate anxiety. NPS acts by activating its cognate receptor (NPSR) and inducing mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. The NPSR mRNA(More)
Modeling and recognizing landmarks at world-scale is a useful yet challenging task. There exists no readily available list of worldwide landmarks. Obtaining reliable visual models for each landmark can also pose problems, and efficiency is another challenge for such a large scale system. This paper leverages the vast amount of multimedia data on the web,(More)
Sharp waves (SPWs) are thought to play a major role in intrinsic hippocampal operations during states in which subcortical and cortical inputs to hippocampus are reduced. This study describes evidence that such activity occurs spontaneously in appropriately prepared rat hippocampal slices. Irregular waves, with an average frequency of approximately 4 Hz,(More)
It has been proposed that the endurance of long-term potentiation (LTP) depends on structural changes entailing reorganization of the spine actin cytoskeleton. The present study used a new technique involving intracellular and extracellular application of rhodamine-phalloidin to conventional hippocampal slices to test whether induction of LTP by(More)
Spontaneous negative-going potentials occurring at an average frequency of 0.7 Hz were recorded from the dentate gyrus of slices prepared from the temporal hippocampus of young adult rats. These events (here termed "dentate waves") in several respects resembled the dentate spikes described for freely moving rats during immobile behaviors and slow-wave(More)
Regional variations and substrates of high-frequency rhythmic activity induced by cholinergic stimulation were studied in hippocampal slices with 64-electrode recording arrays. (1) Carbachol triggered beta waves (17.6 +/- 5.7 Hz) in pyramidal regions of 75% of the slices. (2) The waves had phase shifts across the cell body layers and were substantially(More)
Continuous current source densities were calculated in two dimensions (proximo-distal vs. medio-lateral) from slices of hippocampal field CA1 placed on a 64-electrode array in the presence of GABA blockers. The synaptic sink generated by stimulation of the Schaffer-commissural fibers spread across the extent of field CA1 within the same sublamina of the(More)
We present a technical demonstration of a world-scale touristic landmark recognition engine. To build such an engine, we leverage ~21.4 million images, from photo sharing websites and Google Image Search, and around two thousand web articles to mine the landmark names and learn the visual models. The landmark recognition engine incorporates 5312 landmarks(More)
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