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Both hereditary and acquired factors increase the risk of venous thromboembolism, thus the clinical management of affected patients involves evaluation of genetic factors that predispose to hypercoagulability. Factor V Leiden (R507Q) and factor II (prothrombin) mutation (G20210A) are the two most common inherited hypercoagulability disorders among(More)
Autoimmune metaplastic atrophic gastritis (AMAG) is a significant risk factor for pernicious anemia and gastric neoplasia. Still, the histologic features of AMAG are frequently overlooked, especially in the early stages of the disease. The purpose of our study, therefore, was to catalogue the progression of histologic changes that precede the development of(More)
Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the renal pelvis is rare because SCC represents only 0.5% to 0.8% of malignant renal tumors. Chronic irritation, inflammation, and infection induce squamous metaplasia of the renal collecting system, which may progress to dysplasia and carcinoma in most of affected individuals. Nephrolithiasis, especially formation(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of antiretroviral and antituberculosis treatment in Africa, clinical deterioration during antituberculosis treatment remains a frequent reason for hospital admission. We therefore determined the incidence, causes and risk factors for clinical(More)
BACKGROUND In the developing world, the principal cause of death among HIV-infected patients is tuberculosis (TB). The initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during TB therapy significantly improves survival, however it is not known which barriers prevent eligible TB patients from initiating life-saving ART. METHOD Setting. A South African township(More)
Tumor-specific chromosomal rearrangements often produce potent fusion oncogenes, which induce tumorigenesis by 2 alternative mechanisms: deregulation of the cell cycle resulting in gene overexpression or gene fusion resulting in a hybrid, chimeric oncogene. Tumor-specific recurrent chromosomal translocations and novel fusion oncogenes in aggressive head and(More)
Gene expression profiling reveals elevated Notch1 mRNA expression in triple negative breast cancers (TNBC), both basaloid and claudin-low subtypes. Notch ligands, Jagged1 and Jagged2, have been correlated with poor prognosis in TNBC. AKT, an oncogenic protein kinase family that is activated downstream of Notch in breast cancer cell lines, is frequently(More)
An 86-year-old woman presented with osteonecrosis of the mandible following bisphosphonate therapy for multiple myeloma, and underwent surgical debridement and multiple dental extractions. Histopathologic examination of the necrotic bone fragments revealed acute osteomyelitis with mixed flora and organisms morphologically consistent with Entamoeba(More)
THE GASTROINTESTINAL (GI) TRACT IS A MAJOR SITE OF DISEASE IN HIV INFECTION: almost half of HIV-infected patients present with GI symptoms, and almost all patients develop GI complications. GI symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, dysphagia, odynophagia, abdominal pain, and diarrhea are frequent and usually nonspecific among these patients. Endoscopy is(More)