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In animals, sporadic injections of the mitochondrial toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) selectively damage dopaminergic neurons but do not fully reproduce the features of human Parkinson's disease. We have now developed a mouse Parkinson's disease model that is based on continuous MPTP administration with an osmotic minipump and(More)
In recent years there have been tremendous advances in our understanding of the circuitry of the basal ganglia and our ability to predict the behavioural effects of specific cellular changes in this circuit on voluntary movement. These advances, combined with a new understanding of the rich distribution and diverse physiological roles of metabotropic(More)
Prenatal Restraint Stress (PRS) in rats is a validated model of early stress resulting in permanent behavioral and neurobiological outcomes. Although sexual dimorphism in the effects of PRS has been hypothesized for more than 30 years, few studies in this long period have directly addressed the issue. Our group has uncovered a pronounced gender difference(More)
Almost 25 years after the first report that glutamate can activate receptors coupled to heterotrimeric G-proteins, tremendous progress has been made in the field of metabotropic glutamate receptors. Now, eight members of this family of glutamate receptors, encoded by eight different genes that share distinctive structural features have been identified. The(More)
The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)(2) D3], is involved in calcium and phosphate metabolism and exerts a large number of biological effects. Vitamin D3 inhibits parathyroid hormone secretion, adaptive immunity and cell proliferation, and at the same time promotes insulin secretion, innate immunity and stimulates cellular(More)
High amounts of glutamate are found in the brains of people with multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory disease marked by progressive demyelination. Glutamate might affect neuroinflammation via effects on immune cells. Knockout mice lacking metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 (mGluR4) were markedly vulnerable to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a(More)
The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR cascades are often activated by genetic alterations in upstream signaling molecules such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK). Integral components of these pathways, Ras, B-Raf, PI3K, and PTEN are also activated/inactivated by mutations. These pathways have profound effects on proliferative, apoptotic and(More)
Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors were discovered in the mid 1980s and originally described as glutamate receptors coupled to polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis. Almost 6500 articles have been published since then, and subtype-selective mGlu receptor ligands are now under clinical development for the treatment of a variety of disorders such as Fragile-X(More)
We used primary cultures of cortical neurons to examine the relationship between beta-amyloid toxicity and hyperphosphorylation of the tau protein, the biochemical substrate for neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's brain. Exposure of the cultures to beta-amyloid peptide (betaAP) induced the expression of the secreted glycoprotein Dickkopf-1 (DKK1). DKK1(More)
Cultured neurons exposed to synthetic beta-amyloid (Abeta) fragments reenter the cell cycle and initiate a pathway of DNA replication that involves the repair enzyme DNA polymerase-beta (DNA pol-beta) before undergoing apoptotic death. In this study, by performing coimmunoprecipitation experiments on cross-linked nucleoprotein fragments from Abeta-treated(More)