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High-throughput technologies have led to advances in the recognition of disease pathways and their underlying mechanisms. To investigate the impact of micro-RNAs on the disease process in multiple sclerosis, a prototypic inflammatory neurological disorder, we examined cerebral white matter from patients with or without the disease by micro-RNA profiling,(More)
Distal sensory polyneuropathy is a frequent complication of lentivirus infections of the peripheral nervous system including both human immunodeficiency virus and feline immunodeficiency virus. Proteinase-activated receptors are G protein-coupled receptors implicated in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Proteinase-activated(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) infection causes neurological disease at all levels of the neural axis, accompanied by neuroinflammation and neuronal loss, although the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Given the substantial activation of neuroinflammatory pathways observed in WNV infection, we hypothesized that WNV-mediated neuroinflammation and cell death(More)
BACKGROUND Viral diversity and abundance are defining properties of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1's biology and pathogenicity. Despite the increasing availability of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated dementia (HAD) continues to be a devastating consequence of HIV-1 infection of the brain although the underlying disease mechanisms remain(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genomes and proteins are present in human brain tissues although the impact of HIV/HCV co-infection on neuropathogenesis remains unclear. Herein, we investigate HCV infectivity and effects on neuronal survival and neuroinflammation in conjunction with HIV infection. METHODOLOGY Human microglia, astrocyte and neuron(More)
The brain is assumed to be a sterile organ in the absence of disease although the impact of immune disruption is uncertain in terms of brain microbial diversity or quantity. To investigate microbial diversity and quantity in the brain, the profile of infectious agents was examined in pathologically normal and abnormal brains from persons with HIV/AIDS [HIV](More)
BACKGROUND Neuropsychiatric disorders during HIV/AIDS are common although the contribution of HIV-1 infection within the brain, and in particular individual HIV-1 proteins, to the development of these brain disorders is unknown. Herein, an in vivo transgenic mouse model was generated in which the HIV-1 Nef protein was expressed in microglia cells,(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes motor and neurocognitive abnormalities affecting >50% of children and 20% of adults with HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The closely related lentivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), also causes neurobehavioral deficits. Herein, we investigated the extent to which FIV infection(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) infects and activates innate immune cells in the brain resulting in inflammation and neuronal death with accompanying neurological deficits. Induction of inflammasomes causes cleavage and release of IL-1β and IL-18, representing pathogenic processes that underlie inflammatory diseases although their contribution(More)
BACKGROUND Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are frequently prescribed to persons with HIV/AIDS receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) although the extent of AED use and their interactions with cART are uncertain. Herein, AED usage, associated toxicities and immune consequences were investigated. METHODS HIV replication was analysed in(More)