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Voltage-dependent potassium channels (Kv) are homotetramers composed of four voltage sensors and one pore domain. Because of high-level structural flexibility, the first mammalian Kv structure, Kv1.2 at 2.9 A, has about 37% molecular mass of the transmembrane portion not resolved. In this study, by applying a novel normal-mode-based X-ray crystallographic(More)
Spontaneous nucleation of actin is very inefficient in cells. To overcome this barrier, cells have evolved a set of actin filament nucleators to promote rapid nucleation and polymerization in response to specific stimuli. However, the molecular mechanism of actin nucleation remains poorly understood. This is hindered largely by the fact that actin nucleus,(More)
Influenza A and B viruses are responsible for the severe morbidity and mortality worldwide in annual influenza epidemics. Currently circulating influenza B virus belongs to the B/Victoria or B/Yamagata lineage that was diverged from each other about 30-40 years ago. However, a mechanistic understanding of their divergent evolution is still lacking. Here we(More)
In June 2013, the first human infection by avian influenza A(H6N1) virus was reported in Taiwan. This incident raised the concern for possible human epidemics and pandemics from H6 viruses. In this study, we performed structural and functional investigation on the hemagglutinin (HA) proteins of the human-infecting A/Taiwan/2/2013(H6N1) (TW H6) virus and an(More)
Membrane fusion is involved in many fundamental cellular processes and entry of enveloped viruses into host cells. Influenza type A virus HA has long served as a paradigm for mechanistic studies of protein-mediated membrane fusion via large-scale structural rearrangements induced by acidic pH. Here we report the newly determined crystal structure of(More)
The structural refinement of large complexes at the lower resolution limit is often difficult and inefficient owing to the limited number of reflections and the frequently high-level structural flexibility. A new normal-mode-based X-ray crystallographic refinement method has recently been developed that enables anisotropic B-factor refinement using a(More)
Leiomodin (Lmod) is a class of potent tandem-G-actin-binding nucleators in muscle cells. Lmod mutations, deletion, or instability are linked to lethal nemaline myopathy. However, the lack of high-resolution structures of Lmod nucleators in action severely hampered our understanding of their essential cellular functions. Here we report the crystal structure(More)
Diverged ~4000 years ago, influenza B virus has several important differences from influenza A virus, including lower receptor-binding affinity and highly restricted host range. Based on our prior structural studies, we hypothesized that a single-residue difference in the receptor-binding site of hemagglutinin (HA), Phe-95 in influenza B virus versus Tyr-98(More)
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