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Eye localization has gained a wide range of applications in face recognition, gaze estimation, pose estimation, expression analysis, etc. However, due to the high degree of appearance variability of eyes in size, shape, color, texture and various ambient environment changes, this task is challenging. During the last three decades, numerous techniques have(More)
In this paper, we present a novel approach to deal with the problem of detecting whether the eyes in a given still face image are closed, which has wide potential applications in human–computer interface design, facial expression recognition, driver fatigue detection, and so on. The approach combines the strength of multiple feature sets to characterize the(More)
In this paper, we present an enhanced pictorial structure (PS) model for precise eye localization, a fundamental problem involved in many face processing tasks. PS is a computationally efficient framework for part-based object modelling. For face images taken under uncontrolled conditions, however, the traditional PS model is not flexible enough for(More)
In this paper, we present an enhanced Pictorial Structure (PS) model for precise eye localization, a fundamental problem involved in many face processing tasks. PS is a computationally efficient framework for part-based object modelling. For face images taken under uncontrolled conditions, however, the traditional PS model is not flexible enough for(More)
Recently work has shown the advantages of using attribute representation over low-level feature descriptors in face verification [6], due to its capability to explicitly encode high-level semantic meaning with economical coding bits. These advantages allow us to explicitly investigate the similarity relationship between attributes and to see how such(More)
With smart buildings becoming popular, it is important to track the wastage of energy in public shared buildings to save energy. Current monitoring systems do not provide real-time visibility into the impact of occupants' actions on energy consumption of a building. We propose a system that tracks the energy consumed by users in shared spaces such as(More)
The smart buildings today have various sensors to monitor its energy consumption, and will automatically adjust itself based on occupancy. However, current approaches are optimized for reducing energy consumption while preserving user experience. We believe that proactively modifying occupants' behavior is necessary to further reduce their energy footprint.(More)
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