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BACKGROUND CD28 is one of a number of costimulatory molecules that play crucial roles in immune regulation and homeostasis. Accumulating evidence indicates that immune factors influence breast carcinogenesis. To clarify the relationships between polymorphisms in the CD28 gene and breast carcinogenesis, a case-control study was conducted in women from(More)
BACKGROUND The interaction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) with its receptors: TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF1B is critical for the promotion of tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. To better understand the roles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TNF-α, TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF1B genes in the development of breast cancer, we explored the associations(More)
Selenium (Se) is an essential dietary trace element, which acts as an antioxidant. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a family of intracellular proteins whose synthesis is greatly increased upon exposure of cells to environmental stressors including oxidative metabolites, heavy metals, amino acid analogues and so on. However, little is known about the role of(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is an inhibitory molecule that plays a pivotal role in downregulating T-cell mediated immune responses. To determine the role of CTLA-4 in tumor immunity, and to validate previous results as well, we investigated four tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CTLA-4 in a relatively large Chinese Han cohort from(More)
Endogenous or graft-derived oligodendrocytes promote myelination and aid in the recovery from central nervous system (CNS) injury. Regulatory mechanisms underlying neural myelination and remyelination in response to injury, including spinal cord injury (SCI), are unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that TROY serves as an important negative(More)
BACKGROUND Inducible costimulator (ICOS), a costimulatory molecular of the CD28 family, provides positive signal to enhance T cell proliferation. Its abnormal expression can disturb the immune response and entail an increased risk of cancer. To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ICOS gene are associated with sporadic breast(More)
Various solutions are utilized widely for the isolation, harvesting, sorting, testing and transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs), whereas the effects of harvesting media on the biological characteristics and repair potential of NSCs remain unclear. To examine some of these effects, NSCs were isolated from cortex of E14.5 mice and exposed to the(More)
OBJECTIVE The inhibition of the neovascularization in tumors is a potential therapeutic target of cancer. Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) is a member of the TNF superfamily which has the ability to suppress the formation of new vessels in tumors. In order to study the association between VEGI gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk, a(More)
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