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B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is an immunoinhibitory receptor with the ability to deliver inhibitory signals for suppressing lymphocyte activation. To identify the influences of BTLA gene polymorphisms on the risk of sporadic breast cancer, a case–control study was conducted in women from northeast of China, Heilongjiang Province. We genotyped five(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is an inhibitory molecule that plays a pivotal role in downregulating T-cell mediated immune responses. To determine the role of CTLA-4 in tumor immunity, and to validate previous results as well, we investigated four tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CTLA-4 in a relatively large Chinese Han cohort from(More)
The programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a potent immunoregulatory molecule which is responsible for the negative regulation of T-cell activation and peripheral tolerance. In order to investigate the association between polymorphisms of PD-1 and breast cancer, a case–control study was conducted in Chinese female population consisting of 490 cases with breast cancer(More)
BACKGROUND CD28 is one of a number of costimulatory molecules that play crucial roles in immune regulation and homeostasis. Accumulating evidence indicates that immune factors influence breast carcinogenesis. To clarify the relationships between polymorphisms in the CD28 gene and breast carcinogenesis, a case-control study was conducted in women from(More)
BACKGROUND The interaction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) with its receptors: TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF1B is critical for the promotion of tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. To better understand the roles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TNF-α, TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF1B genes in the development of breast cancer, we explored the associations(More)
Endogenous or graft-derived oligodendrocytes promote myelination and aid in the recovery from central nervous system (CNS) injury. Regulatory mechanisms underlying neural myelination and remyelination in response to injury, including spinal cord injury (SCI), are unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that TROY serves as an important negative(More)
Inducible costimulator (ICOS), a costimulatory molecular of the CD28 family, provides positive signal to enhance T cell proliferation. Its abnormal expression can disturb the immune response and entail an increased risk of cancer. To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ICOS gene are associated with sporadic breast cancer(More)
The infiltrative duct carcinoma (IDC) is the most common malignant breast cancer in females and genetic factors appear to play a significant role in the susceptibility of IDC. The LFA-1 is a crucial co-stimulatory molecule in immune system and may affect the development of breast IDC. In order to clarify the association of LFA-1 polymorphisms with IDC, a(More)
Various solutions are utilized widely for the isolation, harvesting, sorting, testing and transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs), whereas the effects of harvesting media on the biological characteristics and repair potential of NSCs remain unclear. To examine some of these effects, NSCs were isolated from cortex of E14.5 mice and exposed to the(More)
CD27 and its ligand, CD70, are major costimulatory molecules whose interaction can regulate the expansion and differentiation of effector and memory T-cell populations. Their abnormal expression can disturb the immune response and lead to an increased risk of cancer. This study aims to evaluate the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)(More)