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The latency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in resting primary CD4+ T cells is the major barrier for the eradication of the virus in patients on suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Even with optimal HAART treatment, replication-competent HIV-1 still exists in resting primary CD4+ T cells. Multiple restriction factors(More)
Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are polygenic diseases affecting 7-10% of the population in the Western Hemisphere with few effective therapies. Here, we quantify the heritability of paediatric AIDs (pAIDs), including JIA, SLE, CEL, T1D, UC, CD, PS, SPA and CVID, attributable to common genomic variations (SNP-h(2)). SNP-h(2) estimates are most significant for(More)
BACKGROUND Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous immune defect characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, failure of specific antibody production, susceptibility to infections, and an array of comorbidities. OBJECTIVE To address the underlying immunopathogenesis of CVID and comorbidities, we conducted the first genome-wide association(More)
In the human genome, the APOBEC3 gene has expanded into a tandem array of genes termed APOBEC3A-H. Several members of this family have potent anti-HIV-1 activity. Here we demonstrate that APOBEC-3B/3C/3F and -3G are expressed in all major cellular components of the CNS. Moreover, we show that both interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and IFN-gamma significantly(More)
BACKGROUND Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized clinically by inadequate quantity and quality of serum immunoglobulins with increased susceptibility to infections, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Only a few genes have been uncovered, and the genetic background of CVID remains elusive to date for the majority of(More)
BACKGROUND Genetics clearly plays a major role in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but studies to date are only beginning to characterize the causal genetic variants responsible. Until recently, studies using multiple extended multi-generation families to identify ASD risk genes had not been undertaken. METHODS We identified haplotypes(More)
Longevity has a strong genetic component evidenced by family-based studies. Lipoprotein metabolism, FOXO proteins, and insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathways in model systems have shown polygenic variations predisposing to shorter lifespan. To test the hypothesis that rare variants could influence lifespan, we compared the rates of CNVs in healthy children (0-18(More)
Productive infection by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) in the central nervous system (CNS) involves mainly macrophages and microglial cells. A frequency of less than 10% of human astrocytes is estimated to be infectable with HIV-1. Nonetheless, this relatively low percentage of infected astrocytes, but associated with a large total number of(More)
BACKGROUND Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a severe form of retinal dystrophy with marked underlying genetic heterogeneity. Until recently, allele-specific assays and Sanger sequencing of targeted segments were the only available approaches for attempted genetic diagnosis in this condition. A broader next-generation sequencing (NGS) strategy, such as(More)
The T-box gene Eomesodermin (Eomes) is required for early embryonic mesoderm differentiation in mouse, frog (Xenopus laevis), and zebrafish, is important in late cardiac development in Xenopus, and for CD8+ T effector cell function in mouse. Eomes can ectopically activate many mesodermal genes. However, the mechanism by which Eomes activates transcription(More)