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Human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subtypes alpha3 beta2, alpha3 beta2 alpha5, alpha3 beta4, and alpha3 beta4 alpha5 were stably expressed in cells derived from the human embryonic kidney cell line 293. alpha3 beta4 AChRs were found in prominent 2-micrometer patches on the cell surface, whereas most alpha3 beta2 AChRs were more diffusely(More)
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors formed from combinations of alpha3, beta2, beta4, and alpha5 subunits are found in chicken ciliary ganglion neurons and some human neuroblastoma cell lines. We studied the co-expression of various combinations of cloned human alpha3, beta2, beta4, and alpha5 subunits in Xenopus oocytes. Expression on the surface membrane(More)
Chronic exposure to nicotine has been reported to increase the number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in brain. The mechanism of up-regulation for the alpha4beta2 AChR subtype, which accounts for the majority of high affinity nicotine binding in mammalian brain, has previously been shown to involve a decrease in the rate of alpha4beta2 AChR(More)
Functional effects of human alpha 5 nicotinic ACh receptor (AChR) subunits coassembled with alpha 3 and beta 2 or with alpha 3 and beta 4 subunits, were investigated in Xenopus oocytes. The presence of alpha 5 subunits altered some properties of both alpha 3 AChRs and differentially altered other properties of alpha 3 beta 2 AChRs vs. alpha 3 beta 4 AChRs.(More)
Pharmacological properties of the (+)- and (-)-isomers of synthetic epibatidine, exo-2-(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)-7-azabicyclo-[2.2.1]heptane, were compared with nicotine and acetylcholine on several subtypes of chicken and human nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). Both isomers of epibatidine behaved as extremely potent full agonists on chicken (alpha 3(More)
Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are polygenic diseases affecting 7-10% of the population in the Western Hemisphere with few effective therapies. Here, we quantify the heritability of paediatric AIDs (pAIDs), including JIA, SLE, CEL, T1D, UC, CD, PS, SPA and CVID, attributable to common genomic variations (SNP-h(2)). SNP-h(2) estimates are most significant for(More)
Because chronic exposure to nicotine and nicotinic drugs might both activate and desensitize nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), we sought to determine whether prolonged exposure to nicotine concentrations encountered in tobacco users differentially affects electrophysiological properties of major subtypes of human neuronal nicotinic AChRs. Xenopus(More)
APOBEC3G (A3G), a host protein that inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcription and replication in the absence of Vif, displays cytidine deaminase and single-stranded (ss) nucleic acid binding activities. HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) also binds nucleic acids and has a unique property, nucleic acid chaperone activity, which is crucial for efficient reverse(More)