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A novel class of spiro-ureas has been discovered as potent human glucagon receptor antagonists in both binding and functional assays. Preliminary studies have revealed that compound 15 is an orally active human glucagon receptor antagonist in a transgenic murine pharmacodynamic model at 10 and 30 mpk. Compound 15 is orally bioavailable in several(More)
Indinavir analogues with blocked metabolism sites show highly improved pharmacokinetic profiles in animals. The cis-aminochromanol substituted analogues exhibited excellent potency against both the wild-type (NL4-3) virus and protease inhibitor-resistant HIV strains.
Replacement of the pyridylmethyl moiety in indinavir with a pyridyl oxazole yielded HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PI) with greatly improved potency against PI-resistant HIV-1 strains. A meta-methoxy group on the pyridyl ring and a gem-dimethyl methyl linkage afforded compound 10 with notable in vitro antiviral activity against HIV-1 viral strains with reduced(More)
OBJECTIVE To observe the anatomic basis and the clinical application of the modified peroneal arterial cutaneous branch nutritional flap. METHODS Twenty sides of lower limb of adult colyseptic cadavers and 5 sides of lower limb of adult fresh cadavers were used to detect the cutaneous branches of the peroneal artery. The position where the cutaneous(More)
Systemically acting glucokinase activators (GKA) have been demonstrated in clinical trials to effectively lower blood glucose in patients with type II diabetes. However, mechanism-based hypoglycemia is a major adverse effect that limits the therapeutic potential of these agents. We hypothesized that the predominant mechanism leading to hypoglycemia is(More)
OBJECTIVE To discuss the mechanisms and clinical effect of musculus extensor hallucis longus shifting in correcting hallux valgus (HV) deformity. METHODS From April 2004 to December 2006, 25 cases of HV (38 feet) were treated by musculus extensor hallucis longus shifting. There were 2 men and 23 women, aging from 22-60 years (mean 46.3 years). HV angle(More)
A novel, potent series of glucagon receptor antagonists (GRAs) was discovered. These indazole- and indole-based compounds were designed on an earlier pyrazole-based GRA lead MK-0893. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies were focused on the C3 and C6 positions of the indazole core, as well as the benzylic position on the N-1 of indazole. Multiple(More)
Using the collective body of known (CETP) inhibitors as inspiration for design, a structurally novel series of tetrahydroquinoxaline CETP inhibitors were discovered. An exemplar from this series, compound 5, displayed potent in vitro CETP inhibition and was efficacious in a transgenic cynomologus-CETP mouse HDL PD (pharmacodynamic) assay. However, an(More)
Muscle atrophy is the prominent clinical feature of cancer-induced cachexia. Zhimu and Huangbai herb pair (ZBHP) has been used since ancient China times and have been phytochemically investigated for constituents that might cause anti-cancer, diabetes, and their complication. In this study, the effects and mechanisms of ZBHP on reversal of muscle atrophy(More)
Glucokinase (GK, hexokinase IV) is a unique hexokinase that plays a central role in mammalian glucose homeostasis. Glucose phosphorylation by GK in the pancreatic β-cell is the rate-limiting step that controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Similarly, GK-mediated glucose phosphorylation in hepatocytes plays a major role in increasing hepatic glucose(More)