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The pattern of neurological disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) was investigated using a macaque model of acquired immune defiency syndrome (AIDS). Seven of nine macaques inoculated with neurovirulent simian imunodeficiency virus (SIVmac ) developed AIDS within 3 months. Four of these had(More)
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a result of replication of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) predominantly in CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages. However, most of these cells in vivo are immunologically quiescent, a condition restricting HIV-1 replication. Vpr is an HIV-1 virion protein suspected to enhance HIV-1 replication in(More)
By animal-to-animal passage in macaques we derived a pathogenic chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) that caused CD4+ T cell loss and AIDS in pigtail macaques and used it to inoculate 20 rhesus and pigtail macaques by the intravaginal and intravenous routes. On the basis of the outcome of infection and patterns of CD4+ T cell loss and viral(More)
Comparative studies were performed to determine the neuropathogenesis of infection in macaques with simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P and SHIV(KU). Both viruses utilize the CD4 receptor and CXCR4 co-receptor. However, in addition, SHIV89.6P uses the CCR5 co-receptor. Both agents are dual tropic for CD4+ T cells and blood-derived macrophages of(More)
The chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIVKU-1, bearing the envelope of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), causes fulminant infection with subtotal loss of CD4(+) T cells followed by development of AIDS in intravaginally inoculated macaques and thus provides a highly relevant model of sexually transmitted disease caused by HIV-1 in(More)
By animal to animal passage in rhesus and pig-tailed macaques, we developed a rhesus model of HIV-1 disease in humans. Rhesus macaques infected with a cell-free stock of SHIVKU-2 developed CD4+ T cell loss, primary lentiviral encephalitis and pneumonia, and AIDS. Six of nine rhesus macaques died within eight months post-inoculation, while the remaining(More)
BACKGROUND Pharmacogenetics-based algorithms would be especially desirable for patients undergoing heart valve replacement (HVR), who are particularly sensitive to warfarin during the initial treatment phase following surgery. We aimed to derive a warfarin dosing algorithm from data of Chinese patients undergoing HVR, and to compare it with previously(More)
RATIONALE Antibody-targeted delivery of imaging agents can enhance the sensitivity and accuracy of current imaging techniques. Similarly, homing of effector cells to disease sites increases the efficacy of regenerative cell therapy while reducing the number of cells required. Currently, targeting can be achieved via chemical conjugation to specific(More)
Simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIV(KU2) replicates with extremely high titers in macaques. In order to determine whether the DNA of the viral genome could be used as a vaccine if the DNA were rendered noninfectious, we deleted the reverse transcriptase gene from SHIVKU2 and inserted this DNA (DeltartSHIVKU2) into a plasmid that was then used to test(More)
This is a 5-year follow-up study on 12 macaques that were immunized orally with two live SHIV vaccines, six with V1 and six with V2. All 12 macaques became persistently infected after transient replication of the vaccine viruses; all were challenged vaginally 6 mo later with homologous pathogenic SHIV(KU-1). Two of the V1 group developed full-blown AIDS(More)