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Experts of abacus, who have the skills of abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), are able to manipulate numbers via an imagined abacus in mind and demonstrate extraordinary ability in mental calculation. Behavioral studies indicated that abacus experts utilize visual strategy in solving numerical problems, and fMRI studies confirmed the enhanced involvement(More)
Experienced mental abacus (MA) users are able to perform mental arithmetic calculations with unusual speed and accuracy. However, it remains unclear whether their extraordinary gains in mental arithmetic ability are accompanied by an improvement in numerical processing efficiency. To address this question, the present study, using a numerical Stroop(More)
Our previous work demonstrated that abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), a traditional Chinese calculation method, could help children improve their math abilities (e.g. basic arithmetical ability) and executive function (e.g. working memory). This study further examined the effects of long-term AMC training on math ability in visual-spatial domain and(More)
Previous studies have found that children show rapid and significant improvements in their ability to remember individual items and the contextual details that surround these items (i.e., episodic memory) during early childhood. Encoding processes have been suggested to contribute to the development of episodic memory; however, few studies have investigated(More)
Episodic memory relies on a distributed network of brain regions, with the hippocampus playing a critical and irreplaceable role. Few studies have examined how changes in this network contribute to episodic memory development early in life. The present addressed this gap by examining relations between hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory(More)
This study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to assess effects of low-level prenatal lead exposure on auditory recognition memory in 2-month-old infants. Infants were divided into four groups according to cord-blood lead concentration: (1) <2.00 μ g/dL, (2) 2.00-2.99 μ g/dL, (3) 3.0-3.7 μ g/dL, and (4) ≥3.7 μ g/dL. The first group showed the normally(More)
The objective of the current study was to examine what stage of memory (encoding or retrieval) may be compromised in adolescents with a history of prenatal drug exposure (PDE) and how the effects of PDE on memory ability are substantiated at the neural level. To achieve this goal, we examined memory performance and associated brain activations in(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of fetal-neonatal iron deficiency on recognition memory in early infancy. Perinatal iron deficiency delays or disrupts hippocampal development in animal models and thus may impair related neural functions in human infants, such as recognition memory. STUDY DESIGN Event-related potentials were used in an auditory recognition(More)
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