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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) downregulate gene expression by binding to the partially complementary sites in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of target mRNAs. Several methods, such as Northern blot analysis, quantitative real-time RT-PCR, microarray, and the luciferase reporter system, are commonly used to quantify the relative level or activity of miRNAs. The(More)
Methylation status of CpG dinucleotides in the promoter/regulatory region contributes to regulation of transcriptional activities of downstream genes. Nearly all plasmid vectors used in mammalian cells are generated from transformed Escherichia coli. However, these E. coli hosts may have different DNA methylation activities. For instance E. coli JM109 and(More)
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a powerful vasoconstrictor that contributes to blood pressure elevation. The biological effects of ETs are mediated by two receptors, namely, endothelin type A receptor (ET(A)R) and endothelin type B receptor (ET(B)R). Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) with antagonist activity for these two receptors were screened by establishing stable(More)
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) induces contraction of vascular smooth muscle through binding to endothelin type A receptor (ET(A)R). COS-7 cells stably expressing high levels of the ET(A)R were established (designated COS-7(ET(A)R)). The COS-7(ET(A)R) cell bound [(125)I]ET-1 with a K(d) of 932+/-161 pM and a B(max) of 74+/-13 fmol/2x10(5) cells. [(125)I]ET-1 binding(More)
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