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a r t i c l e i n f o A hydration kinetics model for Portland cement is formulated based on thermodynamics of multiphase porous media. The mechanism of cement hydration is discussed based on literature review. The model is then developed considering the effects of chemical composition and fineness of cement, water–cement ratio, curing temperature and(More)
Kernel number per spike is one of the most important yield components of wheat. To map QTLs related to kernel number including spike length (SPL), spikelet number per spike (SPN), fertile spikelet number (FSPN), sterile spikelet number (SSPN) and compactness, and to characterize the inheritance modes of the QTLs and two-locus interactions, 136 recombinant(More)
A new use of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) in fluid simulation is presented: an algorithm solving the Helmholtz-Hodge decomposition using SPH in order to find the null divergence velocity field for incompressible flow simulation. Accordingly, a new version of the Laplacian for a vector field is proposed here. In order to improve the accuracy of the(More)
Nanoparticle electrodes in lithium-ion batteries have both near-surface and interior contributions to their redox capacity, each with distinct rate capabilities. Using combined electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray methods and ab initio calculations, we have investigated the lithiation pathways that occur in NiO electrodes. We find that the near-surface(More)
The rice production is experiencing a shift from conventionally seedling-transplanted (TPR) to direct-seeded (DSR) cropping systems in Southeast Asia. Besides the difference in rice crop establishment, water regime is typically characterized as water-saving moist irrigation for DSR and flooding-midseason drainage-reflooding and moist irrigation for TPR(More)
A multiple-frequency inverse scattering method that uses eigenfunctions of a scattering operator is extended to image large-scale and high-contrast objects. The extension uses an estimate of the scattering object to form the difference between the scattering by the object and the scattering by the estimate of the object. The scattering potential defined by(More)
In traditional optics, the focal spot size of a conventional lens is restricted to the diffraction limit 0.5λ/NA, where λ is the wavelength in vacuum and NA is the numerical aperture of the lens. Recently, various sub-diffraction focusing optical devices have been demonstrated, but they usually have short focal length and high numerical aperture. Moreover,(More)
The investigation of chemical and structural dynamics in battery materials is essential to elucidation of structure-property relationships for rational design of advanced battery materials. Spatially resolved techniques, such as scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM), are widely applied to address this challenge. However, battery materials are(More)
Replacing platinum by a less precious metal such as palladium, is highly desirable for lowering the cost of fuel-cell electrocatalysts. However, the instability of palladium in the harsh environment of fuel-cell cathodes renders its commercial future bleak. Here we show that by incorporating trace amounts of gold in palladium-based ternary (Pd6CoCu)(More)
The Three Gorges Dam features two water-level fluctuation zones (WLFZs): the preupland drawdown zone (PU-DZ) and the preriparian drawdown zone (PR-DZ). To investigate the vegetation potential of Roegneria nutans in WLFZs, we compared the submergence tolerance and germination dynamics in the natural riparian zone (NRZ), PU-DZ and PR-DZ. We found that the NRZ(More)