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The hierarchical packaging of eukaryotic chromatin plays a central role in transcriptional regulation and other DNA-related biological processes. Here, we report the 11-angstrom-resolution cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of 30-nanometer chromatin fibers reconstituted in the presence of linker histone H1 and with different nucleosome(More)
Neonicotinoid insecticides, such as imidacloprid, are selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and are used extensively in areas of crop protection and animal health to control a variety of insect pest species. Here, we describe studies performed with nAChR subunits Nlalpha1 and Nlalpha2 cloned from the brown planthopper(More)
Neonicotinoid insecticides, such as imidacloprid, are selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and are used extensively to control a variety of insect pest species. Previously, we have identified a nAChR point mutation (Y151S) associated with insecticide resistance in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Although this(More)
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels which mediate fast cholinergic synaptic transmission in insect and vertebrate nervous systems. A point mutation Y151S had been identified in Nilaparvata lugens (brown planthopper) that is associated with target-site resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides. Methionine (M151) is found(More)
The structure and biochemical function of the hot dog-fold thioesterase PaaI operative in the aerobic phenylacetate degradation pathway are examined. PaaI showed modest activity with phenylacetyl-coenzyme A, suggestive of a role in coenzyme A release from this pathway intermediate in the event of limiting downstream pathway enzymes. Minimal activity was(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Secondary degeneration of the pyramidal tract after focal motor pathway stroke has been observed by diffusion tensor imaging. However, the relationships between outcomes in hand function and secondary degeneration in widespread regions are not well understood. For the first time, we investigated the differences of secondary(More)
Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR, EC 1.1.1.219) is a rate-limited enzyme in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) that catalyzes the reduction of dihydroflavonols to leucoanthocyanins. In this study, two full-length transcripts encoding for PtrDFR1 and PtrDFR2 were isolated from Populus trichocarpa. Sequence alignment of(More)
This paper examines the catalytic function of the protein YbgC, encoded by the ybgC gene of the tol-pal gene cluster in Haemophilus influenzae. The YbgC protein, a homologue of the Pseudomonas sp. strain CBS3 4-hydroxybenzoyl-coenzyme A thioesterase, conserves the active site Asp residue associated with thioesterase activity. The H. influenzae ybgC gene was(More)
4-Hydroxybenzoyl-coenzyme A (4-HBA-CoA) thioesterase catalyzes the hydrolysis of 4-HBA-CoA to 4-hydroxybenzoate and CoA. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the liganded enzyme has shown that the benzoyl thioester and pantetheine moieties of the substrate ligand are bound in a narrow crevice while the nucleotide moiety rests on the protein surface (Thoden,(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To find an optimal normalizing factor for upper cervical spinal cord area (UCCA) and to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized UCCA correlates better with the neurological disability than the absolute measurement in multiple sclerosis patients. METHODS UCCA and three potential normalizing factors were(More)