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BACKGROUND Cushing's disease is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Pasireotide, a potential therapy, has a unique, broad somatostatin-receptor-binding profile, with high binding affinity for somatostatin-receptor subtype 5. METHODS In this double-blind, phase 3 study, we randomly assigned 162 adults with Cushing's disease and a urinary free(More)
Self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is promoted by FGF and TGFbeta/Activin signaling, and differentiation is promoted by BMP signaling, but how these signals regulate genes critical to the maintenance of pluripotency has been unclear. Using a defined medium, we show here that both TGFbeta and FGF signals synergize to inhibit BMP signaling;(More)
The Nef protein of primate lentiviruses downregulates the cell surface expression of CD4 through a two-step process. First, Nef connects the cytoplasmic tail of CD4 with adaptor protein complexes (AP), thereby inducing the formation of CD4-specific clathrin-coated pits that rapidly endocytose the viral receptor. Second, Nef targets internalized CD4(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the seriousness of dengue-related disease, with an estimated 50-100 million cases of dengue fever and 250,000-500,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome each year, a clear understanding of dengue pathogenesis remains elusive. Because of the lack of a disease model in animals and the complex immune interaction in(More)
Dengue virus, a member of the family Flaviviridae of positive-strand RNA viruses, has seven non-structural proteins: NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B and NS5. Except for enzymic activities contained within NS3 and NS5, the roles of the other proteins in virus replication and pathogenesis are not well defined. In this study, a physical interaction between(More)
The prognostic significance of tumor-associated FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in invasive breast carcinomas is studied. Tregs and CTLs were assessed by immunohistochemistry in 1270 cases of invasive breast carcinoma for their associations with patient survival, histopathologic features, and molecular subtypes.(More)
To investigate the effects of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) on neural stem cell fate, stem cells were inoculated with an adenovirus vector expressing dominant negative form of Stat3 (Stat3F). One day later, a promoter assay revealed significant reduction of the transcriptional level in the transfected cells. Three days later,(More)
As an immune-inspired algorithm, the Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA), produces promising performance in the eld of anomaly detection. This paper presents the application of the DCA to a standard data set, the KDD 99 data set. The results of different implementation versions of the DCA, including antigen multiplier and moving time windows, are reported. The(More)
Antiviral drug discovery is becoming increasingly important due to the global threat of viral disease pandemics. Many members of the genus Flavivirus are significant human pathogens, among which dengue virus (DENV) alone poses a public health threat to 2.5 billion worldwide, leading to 50-100 million human infections each year. Neither vaccine nor effective(More)
It has been reported that the prognostic significances of tumor-infiltrating FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in breast carcinoma depend on their relative density and tissue locations. We here assessed the changes of Tregs before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) and their relationships with tumor response and patient survival. Intratumoral and(More)