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OBJECTIVES To investigate the effects of estrogen on growth and smooth muscle cell (SMC)-differentiation of vascular wall-resident CD34(+) stem/progenitor cells (VRS/Pcs). METHODS AND RESULTS The existence of CD34(+) VRS/Pcs was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in the adventitia of arteries of young (2-month-old) and old (24-month-old) female SD rats(More)
Cell culture and carotid injury studies with SD rats were performed to investigate the roles of CD34+ vascular wall-resident stem/progenitor cells (VRS/Pcs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in neointimal formation. In vitro, the media-isolated SM MHC+ SMCs occupied 93.92±8.62% of total BrdU+ cells, whereas the CD34+ cells, only 2.61±0.82%, indicating(More)
This paper presents an angle and density-based data preprocessing method. It can be used to simultaneously identify outliers, boundary points and center points of clusters. Boundary points and outliers are generally located around the margin of densely distributed data such as a cluster. Detecting boundary points and outliers is often more interesting than(More)
As the web grows, the massive increase in information is placing severe burdens on information retrieval and sharing. Automated search engines and directories with small editorial staff are unable to keep up with the increasing submission of web sites. To address the problem, this paper presents Infomarker — an Internet information service system based(More)
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