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The water flea Daphnia carinata (D. carinata) reproduces both sexually and parthenogenetically, yet little is known about the genes involved in these processes. To further clarify the reproductive biology of Daphnia and elucidate their unique mechanism of reproductive transformation, we have generated and characterized an expressed sequence tag (EST) data(More)
Many gene expressions in the DNA micro array and gene sequences have missing values in the datasets. It is critical to estimate these missing values accurately, because most of the existing algorithms for gene expression analysis require the complete DNA dataset as an input, which affects the performance of gene classifications. This paper introduces(More)
Brown algae are photosynthetic multicellular marine organisms. They belong to the phylum of Stramenopiles, which are not closely related to land plants and green algae. Brown algae share common evolutionary features with other photosynthetic and multicellular organisms, including a carbohydrate-rich cell-wall. Brown algal cell walls are composed(More)
The 19th century witnessed many advances in scientific enzymology and microbiology that laid the foundations for modern biotechnological industries. In the current study, we analyze the content of original lager beer samples from the 1880s, 1890s and 1900s with emphasis on the carbohydrate content and composition. The historic samples include the oldest(More)
This paper proposes a particle swarm optimization (PSO) method for solving Spatial Clustering with Obstacles Constraints (SCOC). In the process of doing so, we first use PSO to get obstructed distance, and then we developed the PSO K-Medoids SCOC (PKSCOC) to cluster spatial data with obstacles constraints. The experimental results show that PKSCOC performs(More)
A trade-off between the carrier concentration and carrier mobility is an inherent problem of traditional transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films. In this study, we demonstrate that the electron concentration of TCO films can be increased without deteriorating the carrier mobility by embedding Ag nanoparticles (NPs) into Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films. An(More)
Restricted to temporal separation during the coupled-waves interaction, aperiodically quasi-phase-matching (QPM) nonlinear crystals are primarily implemented for prechirped pulses, showing limited applications in ultrafast temporal scale. Under the proposed time-synchronization framework, pump and signal waves travel with identical group-velocity, which(More)