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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
Fragile X syndrome is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene. How these mutations affect neuronal development and function remains largely elusive. We generated specific point mutations or small deletions in the Drosophila fragile X-related (Fmr1) gene and examined the roles of Fmr1 in dendritic development of(More)
Defects in the endosomal-lysosomal pathway have been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. A key step in the endocytic regulation of transmembrane proteins occurs in a subset of late-endosomal compartments known as multivesicular bodies (MVBs), whose formation is controlled by endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT). The(More)
Human pluripotent stem cells offer promise for use in cell-based therapies for brain injury and diseases. However, their cellular behavior is poorly understood. Here we show that the expression of the brain-specific microRNA-9 (miR-9) is turned on in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cells. Loss of miR-9 suppressed(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in regulating various aspects of animal development, but their functions in neurogenesis are largely unknown. Here we report that loss of miR-9a function in the Drosophila peripheral nervous system leads to ectopic production of sensory organ precursors (SOPs), whereas overexpression of miR-9a results in a severe loss(More)
Telomerase is an essential enzyme that maintains telomeres on eukaryotic chromosomes. In mammals, telomerase is required for the lifelong proliferative capacity of normal regenerative and reproductive tissues and for sustained growth in a dedifferentiated state. Although the importance of telomeres was first elucidated in plants 60 years ago, little is(More)
The GGGGCC (G4C2) repeat expansion in a noncoding region of C9orf72 is the most common cause of sporadic and familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. The basis for pathogenesis is unknown. To elucidate the consequences of G4C2 repeat expansion in a tractable genetic system, we generated transgenic fly lines expressing 8,(More)
Neurons elaborate dendrites with stereotypic branching patterns, thereby defining their receptive fields. These branching patterns may arise from properties intrinsic to the neurons or competition between neighboring neurons. Genetic and laser ablation studies reported here reveal that different multiple dendritic neurons in the same dorsal cluster in the(More)
The recently identified GGGGCC repeat expansion in the noncoding region of C9ORF72 is the most common pathogenic mutation in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We generated a human neuronal model and investigated the pathological phenotypes of human neurons containing GGGGCC repeat expansions. Skin biopsies(More)