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An inverse relation between cortisol (re)activity and externalizing behavior has been hypothesized, but research findings seem equivocal. We tested this hypo(re)activity hypothesis in two meta-analyses, one for basal cortisol (k = 72 studies, N = 5,480) and one for cortisol reactivity to a stressor (k = 29 studies, N = 2,601). No association was found(More)
Is early preventive intervention effective in enhancing parental sensitivity and infant attachment security, and if so, what type of intervention is most successful? Seventy studies were traced, producing 88 intervention effects on sensitivity (n = 7,636) and/or attachment (n = 1,503). Randomized interventions appeared rather effective in changing(More)
In a randomized controlled trial we tested the role of genetic differences in explaining variability in intervention effects on child externalizing behavior. One hundred fifty-seven families with 1- to 3-year-old children screened for their relatively high levels of externalizing behavior participated in a study implementing Video-feedback Intervention to(More)
Do adopted children show lower self-esteem than nonadopted peers, and do transracial adoptees show lower self-esteem than same-race adoptees? Adopted children are hypothesized to be at risk of low self-esteem. They may suffer from the consequences of neglect, abuse, and malnutrition in institutions before adoption. They have to cope with their adoptive(More)
The home-based intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) was tested in a randomized controlled trial with 237 families screened for their 1- to 3-year-old children's relatively high scores on externalizing behavior. VIPP-SD, based on attachment theory and coercion theory, focuses on(More)
BACKGROUND Adopted children have been said to be difficult children, scarred by their past experiences in maltreating families or neglecting orphanages, or by genetic or pre- and perinatal problems. Is (domestic or international) adoption an effective intervention in the developmental domains of physical growth, attachment security, cognitive development(More)
The current study examined whether adolescents' attachment representations were associated with differences in emotion regulation during the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; C. George, N. Kaplan, & M. Main, 1996) and during a mother-adolescent conflict interaction task (Family Interaction Task [FIT]; J. P. Allen et al., 2003). Participants were one hundred(More)
BACKGROUND This study investigated the occurrence, cross-informant agreement, 1-year stability, and context characteristics of externalizing behaviors in 12-month-old children, as compared to 24- and 36-month-olds. METHOD In a general population sample of 786 12-month-olds, 720 24-month-olds, and 744 36-month-olds, the CBCL/ 1(1/2)-5 was obtained from(More)
The effect of the Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) on daily cortisol production was tested in a randomized controlled trial with 130 families with 1- to 3-year-old children screened for their relatively high levels of externalizing behavior. Six 1.5-hr intervention sessions focusing on maternal(More)
The current intervention study aimed at breaking the potential intergenerational cycle of insecure attachment. The authors randomly assigned 81 first-time mothers to one of two intervention groups or a control group. The interventions involved four home visits when the infants were between 7 and 10 months old. The first intervention, VIPP, consisted of(More)