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Is early preventive intervention effective in enhancing parental sensitivity and infant attachment security, and if so, what type of intervention is most successful? Seventy studies were traced, producing 88 intervention effects on sensitivity (n = 7,636) and/or attachment (n = 1,503). Randomized interventions appeared rather effective in changing(More)
An inverse relation between cortisol (re)activity and externalizing behavior has been hypothesized, but research findings seem equivocal. We tested this hypo(re)activity hypothesis in two meta-analyses, one for basal cortisol (k = 72 studies, N = 5,480) and one for cortisol reactivity to a stressor (k = 29 studies, N = 2,601). No association was found(More)
BACKGROUND This study investigated the occurrence, cross-informant agreement, 1-year stability, and context characteristics of externalizing behaviors in 12-month-old children, as compared to 24- and 36-month-olds. METHOD In a general population sample of 786 12-month-olds, 720 24-month-olds, and 744 36-month-olds, the CBCL/ 1(1/2)-5 was obtained from(More)
This study examines the prevalence, stability, and development of physical aggression, as reported by mothers and fathers, in a sample of children initially recruited at 12, 24, and 36 months (N=2,253) and in a subsample followed up 1 year later (n=271) in a cross-sequential design. Physical aggression occurred in 12-month-olds, but significantly more often(More)
The current intervention study aimed at breaking the potential intergenerational cycle of insecure attachment. The authors randomly assigned 81 first-time mothers to one of two intervention groups or a control group. The interventions involved four home visits when the infants were between 7 and 10 months old. The first intervention, VIPP, consisted of(More)
In a randomized controlled trial we tested the role of genetic differences in explaining variability in intervention effects on child externalizing behavior. One hundred fifty-seven families with 1- to 3-year-old children screened for their relatively high levels of externalizing behavior participated in a study implementing Video-feedback Intervention to(More)
Are serious growth delays caused by malnutrition and neglect permanent or reversible? The effects of institutionalization and international adoption on children's physical growth are estimated with meta-analysis. Studies with sufficient data to compute differences between adoptees and the reference population (33 papers with 122 study outcomes) were(More)
In this paper we examine the prevalence of problem behaviors in samples of adolescents who were adopted from a foreign country as infants or young children. We reviewed ten studies and performed a meta-analysis, comparing 2317 internationally adopted adolescents with 14,345 nonadopted adolescents. Results indicate that internationally adopted adolescents(More)
This meta-analysis of 62 studies (N=17,767 adopted children) examined whether the cognitive development of adopted children differed from that of (a) children who remained in institutional care or in the birth family and (b) their current (environmental) nonadopted siblings or peers. Adopted children scored higher on IQ tests than their nonadopted siblings(More)
BACKGROUND Adopted children have been said to be difficult children, scarred by their past experiences in maltreating families or neglecting orphanages, or by genetic or pre- and perinatal problems. Is (domestic or international) adoption an effective intervention in the developmental domains of physical growth, attachment security, cognitive development(More)