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The crystallographically determined structure of a soluble fragment from the major envelope protein of a flavivirus reveals an unusual architecture. The flat, elongated dimer extends in a direction that would be parallel to the viral membrane. Residues that influence binding of monoclonal antibodies lie on the outward-facing surface of the protein. The(More)
A retrovirus belonging to the family of recently discovered human T-cell leukemia viruses (HTLV), but clearly distinct from each previous isolate, has been isolated from a Caucasian patient with signs and symptoms that often precede the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). This virus is a typical type-C RNA tumor virus, buds from the cell membrane,(More)
BACKGROUND A chikungunya virus outbreak of unprecedented magnitude is currently ongoing in Indian Ocean territories. In Réunion Island, this alphavirus has already infected about one-third of the human population. The main clinical symptom of the disease is a painful and invalidating poly-arthralgia. Besides the arthralgic form, 123 patients with a(More)
The vesicular stomatitis virus has an atypical membrane fusion glycoprotein (G) exhibiting a pH-dependent equilibrium between two forms at the virus surface. Membrane fusion is triggered during the transition from the high- to low-pH form. The structure of G in its low-pH form shows the classic hairpin conformation observed in all other fusion proteins in(More)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused widespread outbreaks of debilitating human disease in the past five years. CHIKV invasion of susceptible cells is mediated by two viral glycoproteins, E1 and E2, which carry the main antigenic determinants and form an icosahedral shell at the virion surface. Glycoprotein E2,(More)
Antibodies protect against homologous Dengue virus (DENV) infection but can precipitate severe dengue by promoting heterotypic virus entry via Fcγ receptors (FcγR). We immortalized memory B cells from individuals after primary or secondary infection and analyzed anti-DENV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) thus generated. MAbs to envelope (E) protein domain III(More)
Enveloped viruses enter cells via a membrane fusion reaction driven by conformational changes of specific viral envelope proteins. We report here the structure of the ectodomain of the tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope glycoprotein, E, a prototypical class II fusion protein, in its trimeric low-pH-induced conformation. We show that, in the(More)
An unprecedented epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection recently started in countries of the Indian Ocean area, causing an acute and painful syndrome with strong fever, asthenia, skin rash, polyarthritis, and lethal cases of encephalitis. The basis for chikungunya disease and the tropism of CHIKV remain unknown. Here, we describe the replication(More)
Glycoprotein G of the vesicular stomatitis virus triggers membrane fusion via a low pH-induced structural rearrangement. Despite the equilibrium between the pre- and postfusion states, the structure of the prefusion form, determined to 3.0 angstrom resolution, shows that the fusogenic transition entails an extensive structural reorganization of G.(More)
Semliki Forest virus (SFV) has been extensively studied as a model for analyzing entry of enveloped viruses into target cells. Here we describe the trace of the polypeptide chain of the SFV fusion glycoprotein, E1, derived from an electron density map at 3.5 A resolution and describe its interactions at the surface of the virus. E1 is unexpectedly similar(More)