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Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has emerged as a crucial cytokine produced by auto-reactive T helper (Th) cells that initiate tissue inflammation. Multiple cell types can sense GM-CSF, but the identity of the pathogenic GM-CSF-responsive cells is unclear. By using conditional gene targeting, we systematically deleted the GM-CSF(More)
Genome-wide association studies implicate dysregulation of immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Particularly, polymorphisms in genes involved in T helper (TH) cell differentiation are associated with risk of developing MS. However, the underlying mechanism by which these risk alleles influence MS susceptibility has remained(More)
Ever since its invention half a century ago, flow cytometry has been a major tool for single-cell analysis, fueling advances in our understanding of a variety of complex cellular systems, in particular the immune system. The last decade has witnessed significant technical improvements in available cytometry platforms, such that more than 20 parameters can(More)
The kinetic energy distribution of ground state muonic hydrogen atoms mup(1S) is determined from time-of-flight spectra measured at 4, 16, and 64 hPa H2 room-temperature gas. A 0.9 keV component is discovered and attributed to radiationless deexcitation of long-lived mu p(2S) atoms in collisions with H2 molecules. The analysis reveals a relative population(More)
Autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) develop from the activation and complex interactions of a wide network of immune cells, which penetrate the central nervous system (CNS) and cause tissue damage and neurological deficits. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a model used to study various aspects of MS, including the infiltration(More)
The x-ray cascade from antiprotonic atoms was studied for 106Cd, 116Cd, 112Sn, 116Sn, 120Sn, and 124Sn. Widths and shifts of the levels due to strong interaction were deduced. Isotopic effects in the Cd and Sn isotopes are clearly seen. The results are used to investigate the nucleon density in the nuclear periphery. The deduced neutron distributions are(More)
The PS209 experiment was run during two three-week periods in 1995 and 1996. The antiproton beam momenta were 412 MeV/c and 310 MeV/c in the first period and 106 MeV/c in the second one. A fraction of the beam time was used for the continuation of the radiochemical experiments aiming at the determination of the peripheral neutron to proton density ratio for(More)
Narcolepsy type 1 is a devastating neurological sleep disorder resulting from the destruction of orexin-producing neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). Despite its striking association with the HLA-DQB1*06:02 allele, the autoimmune etiology of narcolepsy has remained largely hypothetical. Here, we compared peripheral mononucleated cells from(More)
Two experiments have been performed at the CERN Low Energy Antiproton Ring ~LEAR! facility to study the lifetime shortening of metastable antiprotonic helium atoms by the presence of ppm admixtures of oxygen. The change in shape and lifetime of the delayed annihilation time spectra can be reproduced fairly well by fitting a simple four-level model to the(More)
The differences between neutron and proton density distributions at large nuclear radii in stable nuclei were determined. Two experimental methods were applied: nuclear spectroscopy analysis of the antiproton annihilation residues one mass unit lighter than the target mass and the measurements of strong-interaction effects on antiprotonic x rays. Assuming(More)