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We present a new recursive procedure to find a full f electrostatic gyrokinetic equation correct to first order in an expansion of gyroradius over magnetic field characteristic length. The procedure provides new insights into the limitations of the gyrokinetic quasineutrality equation. We find that the ion distribution function must be known at least to… (More)

Full f gyrokinetic formulations employ two gyrokinetic equations, one for ions and the other for electrons, and quasineutrality to obtain the ion and electron distribution functions and the electrostatic potential. This article shows with several examples that the long wavelength radial electric field obtained with full f approaches is extremely sensitive… (More)

We derive a self-consistent equation for the turbulent transport of toroidal angular momentum in tokamaks in the low flow ordering that only requires solving gyrokinetic Fokker-Planck and quasineutrality equations correct to second order in an expansion on the gyroradius over scale length. We also show that according to our orderings the long wavelength… (More)

Traditional electrostatic gyrokinetic treatments consist of a gyrokinetic Fokker-Planck equation and a gyrokinetic quasineutrality equation. Both of these equations can be found up to second order in a gyroradius over macroscopic length expansion in some simplified cases, but the versions implemented in codes are typically only first order. In axisymmetric… (More)

- E G Highcock, Alexander A. Schekochihin, +4 authors William Dorland
- Physical review letters
- 2012

Sheared toroidal flows can cause bifurcations to zero-turbulent-transport states in tokamak plasmas. The maximum temperature gradients that can be reached are limited by subcritical turbulence driven by the parallel velocity gradient. Here it is shown that q/ϵ (magnetic field pitch/inverse aspect ratio) is a critical control parameter for sheared tokamak… (More)

- Michael J. Barnes, Felix I. Parra, William Dorland
- Physical review letters
- 2012

Scaling laws for the transport and heating of trace heavy ions in low-frequency magnetized plasma turbulence are derived and compared with direct numerical simulations. The predicted dependences of turbulent fluxes and heating on ion charge and mass number are found to agree with numerical results for both stationary and differentially rotating plasmas.… (More)

A recent publication [F. I. Parra et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50, 065014 (2008)] warned against the use of the lower order gyrokinetic Poisson equation at long wavelengths because the long wavelength, radial electric must remain undetermined to the order the equation is obtained. Another reference [W. W. Lee et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 044506 (2009)]… (More)

- Michael J. Barnes, Felix I. Parra, E G Highcock, Alexander A. Schekochihin, S C Cowley, Clarissa M Roach
- Physical review letters
- 2011

Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations are conducted to investigate turbulent transport in tokamak plasmas with rotational shear. At sufficiently large flow shears, linear instabilities are suppressed, but transiently growing modes drive subcritical turbulence whose amplitude increases with flow shear. This leads to a local minimum in the heat flux, indicating… (More)

- E G Highcock, Michael J. Barnes, Alexander A. Schekochihin, Felix I. Parra, Clarissa M Roach, S C Cowley
- Physical review letters
- 2010

The effect of flow shear on turbulent transport in tokamaks is studied numerically in the experimentally relevant limit of zero magnetic shear. It is found that the plasma is linearly stable for all nonzero flow shear values, but that subcritical turbulence can be sustained nonlinearly at a wide range of temperature gradients. Flow shear increases the… (More)

- Felix I. Parra, Michael J. Barnes, E G Highcock, Alexander A. Schekochihin, S C Cowley
- Physical review letters
- 2011

The effect of momentum injection on the temperature gradient in tokamak plasmas is studied. A plausible scenario for transitions to reduced transport regimes is proposed. The transition happens when there is sufficient momentum input so that the velocity shear can suppress or reduce the turbulence. However, it is possible to drive too much velocity shear… (More)