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The global bandwidth shortage facing wireless carriers has motivated the exploration of the underutilized millimeter wave (mm-wave) frequency spectrum for future broadband cellular communication networks. There is, however, little knowledge about cellular mm-wave propagation in densely populated indoor and outdoor environments. Obtaining this information is(More)
This paper discusses how broadband 60-GHz devices foreshadow the massively broadband future. The authors introduce relevant design and implementation concepts, and review emerging circuit, communication, and antenna developments. ABSTRACT | This tutorial presents an overview of the technological advances in millimeter-wave (mm-wave) circuit components,(More)
— Propagation measurements at 28 GHz were conducted in outdoor urban environments in New York City using four different transmitter locations and 83 receiver locations with distances of up to 500 m. A 400 mega-chip per second channel sounder with steerable 24.5 dBi horn antennas at the transmitter and receiver was used to measure the angular distributions(More)
—The millimeter wave frequency spectrum offers unprecedented bandwidths for future broadband cellular networks. This paper presents the world's first empirical measurements for 28 GHz outdoor cellular propagation in New York City. Measurements were made in Manhattan for three different base station locations and 75 receiver locations over distances up to(More)
—In this paper, we present reflection coefficients and penetration losses for common building materials at 28 GHz for the design and deployment of future millimeter wave mobile communication networks. Reflections from walls and buildings and penetration losses were measured for indoor and outdoor materials, such as tinted glass, clear glass, brick,(More)
We present several on-chip antenna structures that may be fabricated with standard CMOS technology for use at millimeter wave frequencies. On-chip antennas for wireless personal area networks (WPANs) promise to reduce interconnection losses and greatly reduce wireless transceiver costs, while providing unprecedented flexibility for device manufacturers. We(More)
—This paper reviews recent developments in vehicular radar at 60 GHz and above, with a focus on low cost integrated antennas. We investigate a number of radar and communication antenna systems that can be made inexpensively and in large volumes using standard CMOS semiconductor fabrication methods. As shown here, the electromagnetic characteristics of low(More)
BACKGROUND Dolutegravir (S/GSK1349572), a once-daily, unboosted integrase inhibitor, was recently approved in the United States for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Dolutegravir, in combination with abacavir-lamivudine, may provide a simplified regimen. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND Switching to raltegravir in selected patients treated with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors may result in similar efficacy and lower plasma lipids. METHODS SPIRAL is a 48-week multicentre, open-label trial in which HIV-infected adults with less than 50 copies/ml of plasma HIV RNA for at least the previous 6 months on ritonavir-boosted(More)
BACKGROUND Most adults infected with HIV achieve viral suppression within a year of starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). It is important to understand the risk of AIDS events or death for patients with a suppressed viral load. METHODS AND FINDINGS Using data from the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (2010(More)