Learn More
for research support. We also thank Antony Fielding (editor of the journal) for detailed comments which significantly improved the presentation of the results given in this paper. Abstract We attempt to clarify, and suggest how to avoid, several serious misunderstandings about and fallacies of causal inference in experimental and observational research.(More)
Endogenous selection bias is a central problem for causal inference. Recognizing the problem, however, can be difficult in practice. This article introduces a purely graphical way of characterizing endogenous selection bias and of understanding its consequences (Hernán et al. 2004). We use causal graphs (direct acyclic graphs, or DAGs) to highlight that(More)
This chapter discusses the use of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) for causal inference in the observational social sciences. It focuses on DAGs' main uses, discusses central principles, and gives applied examples. DAGs are visual representations of qualitative causal assumptions: They encode researchers' beliefs about how the world works. Straightforward(More)
Although marriage is associated with a plethora of adult outcomes, its causal status remains controversial in the absence of experimental evidence. We address this problem by introducing a counterfactual life-course approach that applies inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to yearly longitudinal data on marriage, crime, and shared covariates(More)
This study examines how the neighborhood environments experienced over multiple generations of a family influence children's cognitive ability. Building on recent research showing strong continuity in neighborhood environments across generations of family members, the authors argue for a revised perspective on "neighborhood effects" that considers the ways(More)
In human populations, variation in mate availability has been linked to various biological and social outcomes, but the possible effect of mate availability on health or survival has not been studied. Unbalanced sex ratios are a concern in many parts of the world, and their implications for the health and survival of the constituent individuals warrant(More)
OBJECTIVES We investigated the effect of spousal bereavement on mortality to document cause-specific bereavement effects by the causes of death of both the predecedent spouse and the bereaved partner. METHODS We obtained data from a nationally representative cohort of 373 189 elderly married couples in the United States who were followed from 1993 to(More)
he increased probability of death in the recently bereaved, known as the " widow-hood effect, " is key evidence in support of the sociological tenet that social relationships can affect the life chances of individuals (Durkheim [1897] 1997; House, Landis, and Umberson 1988). Dozens of studies across a large number of industrialized countries document that(More)