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Skeletal muscles transform neural control signals into forces that act upon the body segments to effect a coordinated motor task. This transformation is complex, not only because the properties of muscles are complex, but because the tendon affects the transmission of muscle force to the skeleton. This review focuses on how to synthesize basic properties of(More)
Are fingertip forces produced by subject-independent patterns of muscle excitation? If so, understanding the mechanical basis underlying these muscle coordination strategies would greatly assist surgeons in evaluating options for restoring grasping. With the finger in neutral ad- abduction and flexed 45 degrees at the MCP and PIP, and 10 degrees at DIP(More)
Evidence suggests that the nervous system controls motor tasks using a low-dimensional modular organization of muscle activation. However, it is not clear if such an organization applies to coordination of human walking, nor how nervous system injury may alter the organization of motor modules and their biomechanical outputs. We first tested the hypothesis(More)
Walking is a motor task requiring coordination of many muscles. Previous biomechanical studies, based primarily on analyses of the net ankle moment during stance, have concluded different functional roles for the plantar flexors. We hypothesize that some of the disparities in interpretation arise because of the effects of the uniarticular and biarticular(More)
The ankle plantar flexors were previously shown to support the body in single-leg stance to ensure its forward progression [J. Biomech. 34 (2001) 1387]. The uni- (SOL) and biarticular (GAS) plantar flexors accelerated the trunk and leg forward, respectively, with each opposing the effect of the other. Around mid-stance their net effect on the trunk and the(More)
Current understanding of how muscles coordinate walking in humans is derived from analyses of body motion, ground reaction force and EMG measurements. This is Part I of a two-part review that emphasizes how muscle-driven dynamics-based simulations assist in the understanding of individual muscle function in walking, especially the causal relationships(More)
We developed a method for studying muscular coordination and strength in multijoint movements and have applied it to standing posture. The method is based on a musculoskeletal model of the human lower extremity in the sagittal plane and a technique to visualize, geometrically, how constraints internal and external to the body affect movement. We developed(More)
Principles of muscle coordination in gait have been based largely on analyses of body motion, ground reaction force and EMG measurements. However, data from dynamical simulations provide a cause-effect framework for analyzing these measurements; for example, Part I (Gait Posture, in press) of this two-part review described how force generation in a muscle(More)
We have developed a musculoskeletal model of the human lower extremity for computer simulation studies of musculotendon function and muscle coordination during movement. This model incorporates the salient features of muscle and tendon, specifies the musculoskeletal geometry and musculotendon parameters of 18 musculotendon actuators, and defines the active(More)