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Active muscles generate substantial mechanical forces by the contraction/relaxation cycle, and, to maintain an ordered state, they require molecular structures of extraordinary stability. These forces are sensed and buffered by unusually long and elastic filament proteins with highly repetitive domain arrays. Members of the myomesin protein family function(More)
The molecular chaperone and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) exists mainly as a homodimer in the cytoplasm. Each monomer has an ATPase in its N-terminal domain and undergoes large conformational changes during Hsp90's mechanochemical cycle. The three-color single-molecule assay and data analysis presented in the following allows one to observe at the same time(More)
Single-molecule methods have given experimental access to the mechanical properties of single protein molecules. So far, access has been limited to mostly one spatial direction of force application. Here, we report single-molecule experiments that explore the mechanical properties of a folded protein structure in precisely controlled directions by applying(More)
Direct observation of the folding of a single polypeptide chain can provide important information about the thermodynamic states populated along its folding pathway. In this study, we present a lock-in force-spectroscopy technique that improves resolution of atomic-force microscopy force spectroscopy to 400 fN. Using this technique we show that(More)
The highly oriented filamentous protein network of muscle constantly experiences significant mechanical load during muscle operation. The dimeric protein myomesin has been identified as an important M-band component supporting the mechanical integrity of the entire sarcomere. Recent structural studies have revealed a long α-helical linker between the(More)
Single-molecule methods such as force spectroscopy give experimental access to the mechanical properties of protein molecules. So far, owing to the limitations of recombinant construction of polyproteins, experimental access has been limited to mostly the N-to-C terminal direction of force application. This protocol gives a fast and simple alternative to(More)
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