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In one experiment half of the animals were trained to avoid a signaled footshock by jumping (30 or 160 trials), whereas the rest of the animals received the same events as yoked. For all of them the termination of the warning signal and of the shock was followed by a safety signal. Several tests were conducted to assess the ability of the stimuli to(More)
Forward and backward blocking of taste preference learning was compared in rats. In the forward condition, thirsty rats were exposed to a flavor (A) in sucrose solution (+) or in water (-), after which they were exposed to A in compound with another flavor (B) in sucrose solution (i.e., AB+). In the backward condition, these phases were reversed.(More)
Rats were conditioned across 2 consecutive days where a single unsignaled footshock was presented in the presence of specific contextual cues. Rats were tested with contexts that had additional stimulus components either added or subtracted. Using freezing as a measure of conditioning, removal but not addition of a cue from the training context produced(More)
Two experiments, using rats as subjects, examined the role of contextual cues in producing the unconditioned stimulus (US) pre-exposure effect in conditioned taste aversion. Experiment 1 showed a significant US pre-exposure effect, when the pre-exposure was conducted in a familiar context, and that a change of context between the pre-exposure and(More)
In two experiments rats were preexposed to neutral stimuli. Both experiments used a between-subjects design in which a paired group was preexposed to intermixed presentations of A --> Band AX, and an unpaired control group was preexposed to intermixed presentations of A, B, and AX. After the conditioning of B, in Experiment 1, conditioned responding to X(More)
In three experiments, rats given pairings of a neutral flavor with sucrose showed a preference for that flavor when subsequently allowed to choose between it and water. Preexposure to the flavor produced a latent inhibition effect (reduced the size of the preference) when the rats were hungry during the test (Experiments 1 and 2). Rats that were not hungry(More)
The present study investigated the decrement in nutrient-based conditioned flavor preference found in hungry rats exposed to a flavor following simultaneous flavor-sucrose conditioning while thirsty. Although a significant decrease in preference was found in the experimental group in each experiment, there was no evidence of either spontaneous recovery(More)
This article studied the role of contextual cues, present at the time flavor conditioning occurs, on intake behavior in rats. In three experiments animals were given flavor-sucrose pairings in one distinctive context (Context A) whereas the flavor was presented unreinforced in an alternative context (Context B). Experiments 1 and 2 used a simple Pavlovian(More)
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a new drug with abuse potential popularly known as "liquid ecstasy". It is an endogenous compound of the mammalian brain which satisfies many of the criteria for consideration as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. Preliminary studies have found that GHB (100-200 mg/kg) reduces aggressive behavior in mice. This study was(More)
In one experiment using conditioned taste aversion and the unconditioned stimulus (US) preexposure procedure, one group of rats was given LiCl exposure for 3 days, whereas two other groups received saline. Following this phase, all groups were given a novel flavour (saccharine) to drink following either LiCl (group preexposed and one of the control groups)(More)