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Auditory afferents terminating as "large myelinated club endings" on goldfish Mauthner cells are identifiable "mixed" (electrical and chemical) synaptic terminals that offer the unique opportunity to correlate physiological properties with biochemical composition and specific ultrastructural features of individual synapses. By combining confocal microscopy(More)
The mouse connexin 36 (Cx36) gene was mapped on chromosome 2 and an identical transcriptional start site was determined in brain and retina on exon I. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies to the presumptive cytoplasmic loop of the Cx36 protein recognized in immunohistochemical analyses Cx36 expression in the retina, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, inferior olive and(More)
Over the last two decades, the view of gap junction (GJ) channel gating has changed from one with GJs having a single transjunctional voltage-sensitive (V(j)-sensitive) gating mechanism to one with each hemichannel of a formed GJ channel, as well as unapposed hemichannels, containing two, molecularly distinct gating mechanisms. These mechanisms are termed(More)
Connexin 43 (Cx43) nonjunctional or "unapposed" hemichannels can open under physiological or pathological conditions. We characterize hemichannels comprised of Cx43 or Cx43-EGFP (Cx43 with enhanced GFP fused to the C terminus) expressed in HeLa cells. Channel opening was induced at potentials greater than +60 mV. Open probability appeared to be very low. No(More)
Rat cortical astrocytes in pure culture are functionally coupled to neighboring cells via connexin (Cx) 43 gap junctions under ordinary conditions. Small fluorescent molecules such as Lucifer yellow (LY) pass between cell interiors via gap junctions, but do not enter the cells when externally applied. Subjecting rat and mouse cortical astrocytes to(More)
Intercellular channels formed of members of the gene family of connexins (Cxs) vary from being substantially cation selective to being anion selective. We took advantage of the ability of Cx46 to function as an unopposed hemichannel to examine the basis of Cx charge selectivity. Previously we showed Cx46 hemichannels to be large pores that predominantly(More)
A new mouse gap junction gene that codes for a protein of 46,551 Da has been identified and designated connexin47 (Cx47). It mapped as a single-copy gene to mouse chromosome 11. In human HeLa cells and Xenopus oocytes, expression of mouse Cx47 or a fusion protein of Cx47 and enhanced green fluorescent protein induced intercellular channels that displayed(More)
Spinal astrocytes are coupled by connexin (Cx) gap junctions and express pannexin 1 (Px1) and purinergic receptors. Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1), which is released in spinal cord injury, activated spinal astrocytes in culture, induced secretion of ATP, and permeabilized them to relatively large fluorescent tracers [ethidium (Etd) and lucifer yellow(More)
A clone of human HeLa cells stably transfected with mouse connexin40 DNA was used to examine gap junctions. Two separate cells were brought into physical contact with each other ("induced cell pair") to allow insertion of gap junction channels and, hence, formation of a gap junction. The intercellular current flow was measured with a dual voltage-clamp(More)
Human HeLa cells transfected with mouse DNA coding for connexin26 (Cx26) or connexin32 (Cx32) were used to examine the properties of heterotypic Cx26-Cx32 gap junction channels. Intercellular current flow was examined in induced cell pairs by means of the dual voltage-clamp method. We found that Cx26-Cx32 channels exhibit voltage-dependent conductances,(More)