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Two distinct envelope fusion proteins (EFPs) (GP64 and F) have been identified in members of the Baculoviridae family of viruses. F proteins are found in group II nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) of alphabaculoviruses and in beta- and deltabaculoviruses, while GP64 occurs only in group I NPVs of alphabaculoviruses. It was proposed that an ancestral baculovirus(More)
The Agrotis segetum granulovirus (AgseGV) F protein was previously identified as the first betabaculovirus F protein with functional homology to Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) GP64. In the current study, F proteins from Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus (XecnGV), Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV), Phthorimaea operculella granulovirus(More)
The GP64 and F proteins were previously identified as the sole functional envelope fusion proteins in Baculoviridae. F-like proteins, present only in group I nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs), are remnant, nonfunctional F proteins. In this report, we describe the effect of the presence or absence of the F-like protein Ac23 in a gp64-null Autographa californica(More)
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is found throughout multicellular organisms; however, fgf homologs (vfgf) have only been identified among viruses in lepidopteran baculoviruses. The function of vFGFs from Group I alphabaculoviruses, including Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), involves(More)
The envelope fusion protein F of Plutella xylostella granulovirus is a computational analogue of the GP64 envelope fusion protein of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). Granulovirus (GV) F proteins were thought to be unable to functionally replace GP64 in the AcMNPV pseudotyping system. In the present study the F protein of Agrotis segetum(More)
F proteins of group II nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) are envelope fusion proteins essential for virus entry and egress. An F-null Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid NPV (HearNPV) bacmid, HaBacDeltaF, was constructed. This bacmid could not produce infectious budded virus (BV) when transfected into HzAM1 cells, showing that F protein is essential for(More)
The entry of baculovirus budded virus into host cells is mediated by two distinct types of envelope fusion proteins (EFPs), GP64 and F protein. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that F proteins were ancestral baculovirus EFPs, whereas GP64 was acquired by progenitor group I alphabaculovirus more recently and may have stimulated the formation of the group I(More)
The genome of Buzura suppressaria nucleopolyhedrovirus (BusuNPV) was sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing technology. The size of the genome is 120,420 bp with 36.8% G+C content. It contains 127 hypothetical open reading frames (ORFs) covering 90.7% of the genome and includes the 37 conserved baculovirus core genes, 84 genes found in other baculoviruses, and 6(More)
A vulnerability that allows eavesdroppers to extract the code from the waveform of the noiselike encoded signal of an isolated user in a standard time-spreading optical code division multiple access communication system using bipolar phase code is experimentally demonstrated. The principle is based on fine structure in the encoded signal. Each dip in the(More)