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Modern lithium ion batteries are often desired to operate at a wide electrochemical window to maximize energy densities. While pushing the limit of cutoff potentials allows batteries to provide greater energy densities with enhanced specific capacities and higher voltage outputs, it raises key challenges with thermodynamic and kinetic stability in the(More)
A homologous series of propylene carbonate (PC) analog solvents with increasing length of linear alkyl substitutes were synthesized and used as co-solvents with PC for graphite-based lithium-ion half cells. A graphite anode reaches a capacity of around 310 mAh/g in PC and its analog co-solvents, with 99.95 percent Coulombic efficiency, similar to the values(More)
Silicon alloys have the highest specific capacity when used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries; however, the drastic volume change inherent in their use causes formidable challenges toward achieving stable cycling performance. Large quantities of binders and conductive additives are typically necessary to maintain good cell performance. In this(More)
Two times higher activity and three times higher stability in methanol oxidation reaction, a 0.12 V negative shift of the CO oxidation peak potential, and a 0.07 V positive shift of the oxygen reaction potential compared to Pt nanoparticles on pristine TiO2 support were achieved by tuning the electronic structure of the titanium oxide support of Pt(More)
Lithium metal has re-emerged as an exciting anode for high energy lithium-ion batteries due to its high specific capacity of 3860 mAh g-1 and lowest electrochemical potential of all known materials. However, lithium has been plagued by the issues of dendrite formation, high chemical reactivity with electrolyte, and infinite relative volume expansion during(More)
Long-term durability is a major obstacle limiting the widespread use of lithium-ion batteries in heavy-duty applications and others demanding extended lifetime. As one of the root causes of the degradation of battery performance, the electrode failure mechanisms are still unknown. In this paper, we reveal the fundamental fracture mechanisms of(More)
Although controlling the interfacial chemistry of electrodes in Li-ion batteries (LIBs) is crucial for maintaining the reversibility, electrolyte decomposition has not been fully understood. In this study, electrolyte decomposition on model electrode surfaces (Au and Sn) was investigated by in situ attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared(More)
Lithium polysulfide batteries possess several favorable attributes including low cost and high energy density for grid energy storage. However, the precipitation of insoluble and irreversible sulfide species on the surface of carbon and lithium (called "dead" sulfide species) leads to continuous capacity degradation in high mass loading cells, which(More)
Electrolytic manganese solid waste (EMSW) is composed of manganese, calcium, and other sulfates. Common practice in China is to treat EMSW with quicklime (CaO); however, the per unit mass treatment efficiency of CaO is low. Studies of the interface between the CaO and EMSW particle and their microstructural characteristics are limited; these interactions(More)
Significant increases in the energy density of batteries must be achieved by exploring new materials and cell configurations. Lithium metal and lithiated silicon are two promising high-capacity anode materials. Unfortunately, both of these anodes require a reliable passivating layer to survive the serious environmental corrosion during handling and cycling.(More)