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DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark for transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) in diverse organisms. Recent studies suggest that the methylation status of a number of genes is dynamically regulated by methylation and demethylation. In Arabidopsis, active DNA demethylation is mediated by the ROS1 (repressor of silencing 1) subfamily of(More)
The cell-to-cell transmission of viral resistance is a potential mechanism for amplifying the interferon-induced antiviral response. In this study, we report that interferon-α (IFN-α) induced the transfer of resistance to hepatitis B virus (HBV) from nonpermissive liver nonparenchymal cells (LNPCs) to permissive hepatocytes via exosomes. Exosomes from(More)
Scaffolded DNA origami is a versatile means of synthesizing complex molecular architectures. However, the approach is limited by the need to forward-design specific Watson-Crick base pairing manually for any given target structure. Here, we report a general, top-down strategy to design nearly arbitrary DNA architectures autonomously based only on target(More)
The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR; EC1.1.1.34) catalyzes the first committed step of isoprenoids biosynthesis in MVA pathway. Here we report for the first time the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA encoding HMGR (designated as CgHMGR, GenBank accession number EF206343) from hazel (Corylus avellana L. Gasaway), a(More)
Viperin is a type-I and -II interferon-inducible intracytoplasmic protein that mediates antiviral activity against several viruses. A previous study has reported that viperin could limit hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in vitro. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, we found that overexpression of viperin could inhibit(More)
Transcription factors play key roles in plant development through their interaction with cis-elements and/or other transcription factors. A HD-Zip IV family transcription factor, Gossypium barbadense Meristem Layer 1 (GbML1) has been identified and characterized here. GbML1 specifically bound to the L1 box and the promoters of GbML1 and GbRDL1. GbML1(More)
Microsatellites are extremely common in plant genomes, and in particular, they are significantly enriched in the 5' noncoding regions. Although some 5' noncoding microsatellites involved in gene regulation have been described, the general properties of microsatellites as regulatory elements are still unknown. To address the question of microsatellites(More)
Two 4 L tubular microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were installed in a municipal wastewater treatment facility and operated for more than 400 days on primary effluents. Both MFCs removed 65-70% chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 11 h and reduced about 50% suspended solids. The COD removal rates were about 0.4 (total) or 0.2(More)
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) mediates breast cancer cell chemotaxis and metastasis through mechanisms that involve the growth-regulatory mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex mTORC2, but the mechanisms involved remain obscure. Here, we report that the rapamycin-insensitive mTORC2 component protein Rictor is a critical mediator of metastasis in(More)
Since the processes of normal embryogenesis and neoplasia share many of similar pathways, tumor development has been interpreted as an abnormal form of organogenesis. NANOG is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor that functions to maintain self-renewal and proliferation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Aberrant expression of NANOG has been observed(More)