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Growing evidence suggests that physical microenvironments and mechanical stresses, in addition to soluble factors, help direct mesenchymal-stem-cell fate. However, biological responses to a local force in embryonic stem cells remain elusive. Here we show that a local cyclic stress through focal adhesions induced spreading in mouse embryonic stem cells but(More)
Stem cells derived from adult tissues or from the inner cell mass of blastocyst-stage embryos can self-renew in culture and have the remarkable potential to undergo lineage-specific differentiation. Extensive studies have been devoted to achieving a better understanding of the soluble factors and the mechanism(s) by which they regulate the fate decisions of(More)
Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs [hESCs]) proliferate as colonies wherein individual cells are strongly adhered to one another. This architecture is linked to hESC self-renewal, pluripotency, and survival and depends on epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), NMMIIA (nonmuscle myosin IIA), and p120-catenin. E-cadherin and p120-catenin work within a positive(More)
Telocytes (TCs) are a peculiar type of interstitial cells with very long prolongations termed telopodes. TCs have previously been identified in different anatomic structures of the heart, and have also been isolated and cultured from heart tissues in vitro. TCs and fibroblasts, both located in the interstitial spaces of the heart, have different(More)
Telocytes (TCs) are a distinct type of interstitial cells characterized by a small cell body and extremely long and thin telopodes (Tps). The presence of TCs has been documented in many tissues and organs (go to http://www.telocytes.com). Functionally, TCs form a three-dimensional (3D) interstitial network by homocellular and heterocellular communication(More)
The Drosophila melanogaster TRPA family member painless, expressed in a subset of multidendritic neurons embeding in the larval epidermis, is necessary for larval nociception of noxious heat or mechanical stimuli. However, the function of painless in adult flies remains largely unknown. Here we report that mutation of painless leads to a defect in male-male(More)
FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) was identified as an obesity-susceptibility gene by several independent large-scale genome association studies. A cluster of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) located in the first intron of FTO was found to be significantly associated with obesity-related traits, such as body mass index, hip circumference, and body(More)
The relationship between chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and cognitive function has not been completely delineated. In the present studies, we developed an experimental model associated with arteriovenous malformation to investigate the effects of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion on cognitive function and neuropathological changes. The rat model was(More)
Hepatic interstitial cells play a vital role in regulating essential biological processes of the liver. Telocytes (TCs), a novel type of interstitial cells firstly identified by Popescu and his coworkers, have been reported in many tissues and organs, but not yet in liver (go to http://www.telocytes.com). We used transmission electron microscopy and(More)
Efficient derivation of large-scale motor neurons (MNs) from human pluripotent stem cells is central to the understanding of MN development, modelling of MN disorders in vitro and development of cell-replacement therapies. Here we develop a method for rapid (20 days) and highly efficient (~70%) differentiation of mature and functional MNs from human(More)